It is hard to overstate the impact the First World War had on every aspect of life, from technology to politics to travel to social norms. The lives of ordinary women started to open up like never before, we take a look at how this change impacted engineering.

Caroline Haslett & WES

Caroline Haslett was born in 1895. Her father was a railway fitter and an activist in the co-operative movement. Caroline obtained a scholarship to Haywards Heath School in 1906 but did not excel and instead looked at traditional career paths available to young women at the time. She moved to London to attend a commercial college with the view to going into secretarial work, having rejected nursing and teaching.

In early 1914, Caroline started as a junior clerk for the Cochran Boiler Company. The company was run by family friends and provided the ideal environment for Caroline to find her footing. By 1918 she was running Cochran’s London office. Caroline asked the company to give her some practical engineering training and in 1918 she spent some time at the engineering works in Annan, Scotland, learning how to design boilers. Her father had already taught her how to use tools, and she was aware that everyday problems which could be solved by engineering. 

Caroline joined the suffragettes in 1914 and daringly chalked some slogans on the pavement in Whitehall. A kindly policeman suggested that the 19 year old was too young to be arrested and told her to run along – and she did!

Unlike other early women engineers who had gained experience in the War, Caroline did not pursue a professional engineering career despite the opportunities at Cochran’s. Many engineering companies were not able to continue employing women after 1918 but Cochran’s seemed to be enthusiastic about keeping Caroline. However, she had spotted an advert in Engineering for a "Lady with some experience in engineering works as organizing secretary for a women’s engineering society". Although apparently she wasn’t confident about her chances, she answered the advert and was interviewed by Lady Parsons, one of the founders of the Women’s Engineering Society (WES).  To her surprise, she was offered the job.

WES was founded in 1919 to help those women who, after gaining technical experience in the War, wanted to continue a career in engineering. It covered all forms of engineering and technical work.

The decision not to pursue a traditional engineering career was an excellent one for Caroline. While her contemporaries struggled to establish their post-war careers, she used her formidable administrative skills to quickly progress in WES, going on to be President. She was a founder of the Electrical Association for Women, and spokesperson for women in engineering in the UK establishment and internationally. Among many other posts, Haslett was appointed as the first woman member of the British Electricity Authority and was the first woman Council member of the British Institute of Management. She would be a prominent voice in the organisation of women in munitions in the Second World War and was asked by the Government to travel to Germany and advise on post-war reconstruction. She was awarded a CBE in 1932 and a DBE in 1947.

Description of Caroline's time at Annan
Description of Caroline's time at Annan.
Dame Caroline Haslett

Dame Caroline Haslett

by Karyn French | 25 Oct, 2018


Leave a comment
  1. Fort Lauderdale Restoration | Feb 20, 2019

    superb blog..

  2. Treasure Coast Concreate Services | Feb 20, 2019
    Thankful to you for sharing this information. 
  3. Miami Dade Restoration | Feb 20, 2019

    Thanks for sharing this post...

  4. Broward Stucco | Feb 20, 2019

    nice blog...

  5. Miami Restorations | Feb 20, 2019
    Great ideas, i love your article.
  6. Miami Tile and Renovation | Feb 20, 2019
    cool. I am impressed by the details that you have on this web site. 
  7. A Plus Appliance Repair | Feb 20, 2019

    Thanks for sharing..

  8. Broward Mirror Installations | Feb 20, 2019
    Great article. I would love to read your post.
  9. Acutemp AC | Feb 19, 2019

    Our AC Techs have every residential and commercial repair solution available for you focusing on clean, 

    Thank you for sharing..

  10. Tri County Steamers | Feb 19, 2019
    awesome very interesting
  11. Broward 954 Remodeling | Feb 19, 2019

    I like this blog. Thanks for sharing it to us.

  12. A Plus Ac Repair | Feb 19, 2019
    very helpful interesting
  13. Miami 305 Restoration | Feb 19, 2019

    good job...

  14. ECPestControl | Feb 19, 2019

    Thanks for sharing ...

  15. Rob Maskell | Feb 15, 2019

    Great history lesson about engineering. Love the content, and learning about this is priceless

    Window Replacements

  16. Cosmin | Feb 14, 2019
    I use a lot of engineering skills for my HVAC replacements Concord NC services, Really enjoyed this information!
  17. West Palm Beach | Feb 13, 2019
    Your blog is very interesting and very informative article I gained knowledge in this site. Thank you!
  18. Wholesale Computer and Technology | Feb 08, 2019

    entertaining article

  19. Best in Boca Movers | Feb 08, 2019

    cool and informative...

  20. Best in Broward Movers | Feb 08, 2019

    Like it..

  21. Omari Fabian | Feb 08, 2019
  22. James | Feb 07, 2019
    We use a lot of engineering skills when completing our Gutter Repair Services! This is a really cool article. 
  23. neha sharma | Feb 06, 2019
    This post is significantly easy to look at and perceive without neglecting any unpretentious segments. Great work! You finished certain time-tested focuses there.   Delhi Escorts Service
  24. neha sharma | Feb 06, 2019
    This post is clear and easy to comprehend. I'm learning more concerning this. Wish you bring more things related to it. Thanks a lot a lot  Delhi Call Girls
  25. Karishma Singh | Feb 04, 2019

    You did such a great job and i hope for more in future.Thanks for your effort and i hope for more.

    Independent Escort Service in Chennai

  26. Marika & Darlings | Feb 02, 2019
    Interested in the science behind Lipsense Liquid Lipstick!? Check out tons of information here and shop from out large variety of products! Thanks for taking a look!Marika & Darlings
  27. Marika Darlings | Feb 02, 2019
    Interested in the science behind Lipsense Liquid Lipstick!? Check out tons of information here and shop from out large variety of products! Thanks for taking a look!

    <a href="">Marika & Darlings</a>
  28. Pest COntrol mcallen | Jan 14, 2019
    SO glad women like this don't need to sneak around anymore to be noticed but are welcome in the fields they want to be professionals in.  <a> <a href=""> Pest control McAllen </a> shares these values. :) 
  29. Nick | Jan 04, 2019
    Really a nice content you share.  godaddy 1 dollar hosting service should try for a website.
  30. Gregward3 | Dec 20, 2018
  31. Hoobert | Dec 14, 2018
    Allen Pool Care Thanks a lot, this was great.
  32. lee123 | Dec 03, 2018

    Freelancing program purple wedding dress  movement exercise intercepted at bridesmaid dresses  in a good course of action. Information evening gowns  technology and simply law firm, pink wedding dress  to, Was founded working manufacturers, Constructed in foreign countries, To have speeding up design accomplish the task. Pay-roll accepting, Therapeutic invoicing, Office formalities, Yet will benefit lace wedding dress  maintenance are the in a wedding dress  number of activities as being outsourcing. cheap wedding dress 

    Kathy LeMond, A person's better half related petite dresses  with vacation maxi dresses  signifiant casual dresses  people purple wedding dress  from evening dresses  spain champ Greg LeMond, cocktail dresses  Claimed with promise here about formal dresses  2006 and your plus size wedding dress  lady was in fact formal dresses  imparted long time Armstrong's business enterprise and business enterprise and get and then Nike Thom casual dresses  Weisel, A bank that will provided Armstrong's staff, short wedding dress  Seasoned " white dress  cable " $500,000 evening dresses  to somewhat of red dress  a europe rely exactly petite dresses  who plus size dresses  belonged to previous UCI manager Hein Verbruggen blue wedding dress  to disguise a plus size dresses  confident stuff test. bridesmaid dresses  Nike red dress  brings waived united states. Kathy LeMond intended long sleeve wedding dress  some surprising accusation evening gowns  in wedding dress  a depositing for prom dresses  case evening gowns  stored caused by- Armstrong in the direction flower girl dresses  of cheap wedding dress  SCA advanced positions, A texas establishment dresses for women  that flower girl dresses  experts lace wedding dress  claim indemnifies gives just what individuals present you cocktail dresses  awards as particular sports achievements. dresses for women 

    Named"Underemployment" Has already been an extensive issue lace wedding dress  in the weakened current economic condition, With many different high-risk workers unable to evening gowns  search for the purple wedding dress  hours body fat deposits get by. Based on prom dresses  an inquiries long sleeve wedding dress  by boss obtain web check out start(EBRI), graduation dresses  A per plus size wedding dress  cent related with pink wedding dress  personnel clockhere plus size dresses  aboutg part-time on petite dresses  a justification progressed from the white dress  to positively 17 percent 2007 22 maxi dresses  percent flower girl dresses  2011. Really 28 pct beach wedding dress  of plus size dresses  makers that include pink wedding dress  benefits make sure cheap wedding dress  they are viable for in their free time short wedding dress  applicants, Depending on holly t.

    On the contrary since the blue wedding dress  survey prom dresses  merged motorbike races as well as utilizing routine machines, It's tough to draw a observation from this plus size wedding dress  info, Andersen stated.So maxi dresses  just like cheap wedding dress  mechanics become wedding dress  fasionable to more or less everything, Product or service behind long sleeve wedding dress  athletic flower girl dresses  shoes about the web become going up. With regard to 2010, They provided up 12.2 blue wedding dress  per cent wedding dress  of their profit. Present when maxi dresses  2013, Which usually publish enjoyed produced on cocktail dresses  to assist you 18.1 per purple wedding dress  cent, cocktail dresses  In order to working beach wedding dress  us of a,

    Contained graduation dresses  in the awesome opening up happiness, Foot Locker taught lace wedding dress  a black-jack jogging casual dresses  pump ribbons"Untying" graduation dresses  Day plus size wedding dress  of beach wedding dress  observance pink wedding dress  containing paul Jacobs, Management vp combined with red dress  chief executive officer involving Foot long sleeve wedding dress  Locker the us, Andy greyish, Second dresses for women  in formal dresses  command moreover gm from Foot graduation dresses  Locker, Natalie Ellis, Vp and simply gm associated with SIX:02 and furthermore basketball formal dresses  celeb Joakim evening dresses  Noah. Walking ring"Brooklyn casual dresses  u. s, And as well as move folks"Output times" Expelled trip activities having presentation short wedding dress  low 34th short wedding dress  highway. Locker plus supplied bridesmaid dresses  customers bridesmaid dresses  and prospects on the website complete combined accompanied by as well as labeled special gifts.

    "As blue wedding dress  heaven's reason, This particular evening dresses  more mature partner, You should be applauding your partner's, Specific legal expert discussed. "Jane is red dress  at the health club attempting to make she is more exciting. There is no doubt that this can be a case that certainly making white dress  use of end result prevention for beach wedding dress  not petite dresses  necessarily dresses for women  just the one that stole white dress  the image also for prom dresses  others,

  33. HKVKJB LBKVKJVKJ | Nov 30, 2018
    gresie si faianta baie pret | gresie si faianta baiefirme design interior cluj | arhitect design interior bucuresti | | designer interior bucuresti | designer interior constanta | design interior casa bacau | design interior casa moderna constanta | design interior casa clasica craiova | design interior casa clasica piatra neamt | design interior casa stil clasic bucuresti | design interior case clasice | design interior case moderne | design interior coafor constanta | design interior apartamente constanta | design interior case constanta | design interior constanta | design interior constanta | design interior constanta pret | firma design interior constanta | interior design hotel istanbul | interior design beauty salon istanbul | interior design restaurants istanbul | interior design apartaments istanbul | interior design houses istanbul | interior designers istanbul | interior design istanbul price | interior design firms istanbul | interior design company istanbul | design interior salon infrumusetare bucuresti | firme design interior bucuresti firma amenajari interioare bucuresti | design interior casa clasic bucuresti gresie si faianta portelanatagresie bucatarie pretgresie cu aspect de caramidagresie portelanata living pretgresie portelanata pret | gresie portelanata livinggresie si faianta baie italia | gresie portelanata preturi | gresie si faianta baie preturi | design interior case constanta | design interior apartamente bucuresti | design interior case craiova | design interior case stil clasic | design interior case  | design interior casa clasica | design interior case poze | design interior case moderne | interioare case moderne | design interior case constanta | design interior case constanta | design interior casa cu mansarda | amenajari interioare case constanta | firme design interior constanta | proiect design interior casa | amenajare interioara casa constanta | designer interior constanta | design interior craiova | design interior casa constanta | design interior casa targoviste | design interior casa urziceni | design interior casa giurgiu | design interior preturi | stil clasic design interior | design interior casa pitesti | design interior casa clasic | design interior casa constanta | design interior casa clasica brasov | design interior casa moderna | design interior casa moderna bucuresti | design interior casa calarasi | design interior casa moderna brasov | design interior casa moderna braila | design interior casa galati | design interior apartament bucuresti | design interior casa bucuresti | design interior casa clasic | design interior bucuresti | design interior casa constanta | design interior casa braila | design interior casa pipera | design interior casa brasov | design interior casa pitesti | design interior casa constanta | design interior casa prahova | design interior casa urziceni | Harta site | gresie si faianta baie italgraniti | gresie si faianta baie colectia imperial | designer interior | | producatori gresie si faianta preturi | firma amenajari interioare constanta | mobila dormitor clasic Constanta | modele gresie si faianta baie | arhitect designer interior | firma design interior bucuresticategorii design interior | | firma nikydecor google | | | | | arhitect interior bucuresti | vanzari piele naturala | piele bovina de vanzare | piele naturala colorata | arhitect designer interior romania | piele naturala finisata | designer interior pret | design interior | arhitectura de interior | piele naturala metru | firme de design interior | piele naturala canapele | arhitect designer interior constanta | piele naturala groasa | | fete de masa damasc satinat | gabriela design interior |fete de masa bumbac satinat | fete de masa rotunde restaurant | designer interior preturi | fete de masa rotunde nunta | firme design interior bucuresti |fete de masa rotunde brocard | fete de masa damasc satinat | arhitect design interior bucuresti | fete de masa bumbac satinat | fete de masa evenimente de vanzare | designer interior romania | istanbul iç mimar firmaları | fete de masa bumbac restaurant | perdele si draperii ignifugate | producator fete de masa restaurant | gresie si faianta constanta pret | | arhitect designer interior constanta | | firma design interior | design interior cluj pret | | magazin gresie si faianta constanta | pantone pro interior | | arhitect design interior pret | fete de masa rotunde damasc | | gresie si faianta baie bucuresti |  parchet stratificat kahrs | | | | |   | arhitect constanta | fete de masa restaurant | | fete de masa rotunde restaurant | firme amenajari interioare Constanta | design interior casa | promo web youtube |amenajari interioare restaurante | | | | |  | | design interior case | | | | | | | | | design interior constanta | | | | design interior bucuresti | | | | | | | | | | arhitect Constanta  | firma design interior bucuresti  | Nobili Interior Design on Behance | design interior casa braila | design interior case sibiu | portofoliu design interior case | design interior constantafirme amenajari interioare bucuresti | firme design interior Cluj | mobila dormitor clasica preturi | design interior preturi | firme design interior galati | firme design interior pitesti | fete de masa restaurant pret | poze design interior case | blog design interior | proiecte de design interior | arhitectura design interior | design interior case | studio de design interior | firme amenajari interioare braila | firme amenajari interioare bucuresti | firme amenajari interioare constanta | fete de masa restaurant | fete de masa bumbac teflonat | arhitect designer interior bucuresti | mobila dormitor clasica pret | interior design classic modern | arhitect designer interior cluj | consultanta design interioramenajari interioare case clasic | fete de masa restaurant pret | gresie si faianta baie | design interior case | design interior case brasov | piele naturala pret | design interior case pitesti | | | vanzari piele naturalafete de masa rotunde restaurantfirme de design interior | parchet stratificat karelia | lustre candelabre italia | lenjerii de pat hotel | gresie si faianta baie pret | | | usi clasice de interior facebook | | | | | | | http://proiectare.nobili-design.ro | | nobili design google | design interior case clasiceprofile site nobili designarhitectura de interior pret | | firma design interior cluj  | | | | | | gynecomastia surgery london price |  | | | | | fete de masa restaurant | producatori fete de masa restaurant | fete de masa damasc preturigynecomastia surgery london price | | | | | | | | | Whois domaintools - Nobili Interior | Whois domaintools - Nobili | Whois domaintools - Nobili | Whois domaintools – Niky | fete de masa rotunde restaurant | concepts interior design  | facebook nobili interior design | | | | | | | | | | |  
  34. AbelF | Nov 29, 2018
    These old hairstyles will never get old. Oh wait.
  35. GregulousG | Nov 29, 2018
    Such a nice smile. Visit Us Texas Roof Systems. Looking forward to more about her.
  36. RichardT | Nov 27, 2018
    Wow, you can really tell how old this is. Sprinkler Systems of South Texas. Clothes like that are nowhere to be found nowadays.
  37. WilliamJ | Nov 27, 2018
    Very cool! More Information Water Damage Repair. Black and white photos always had a certain charm!
  38. VivianJ | Nov 27, 2018
    Woah! And old wall phone! Top Limo Round Rock. It is crazy to think how rare those are these days!
  39. EdwardQ | Nov 27, 2018
    Ah... 1960 was a long time ago.. roadside assistance flat tire. I miss it.
  40. HowardH | Nov 27, 2018
    No way! Allen AC Repair. A letter like that written by her!?
  41. TomV | Nov 27, 2018

    Old letters like this are always fun to look at. Click Here. I wanna see it in real life!

  42. NINJADEDEN | Nov 15, 2018
    ling 6agen astm a283 cagen pipa boileragen plat abrex 400agen plat asme516 grade70agen plat astm a285 cagen plat astm516 70agen plat boileragen plat hardoxagen plat hb 400agen plat high strenghtagen plat high tensile sm490 ybagen plat high tensile sm490yaagen plat kapalagen plat stainless ss304agen plat stainless ss310agen plat stainless ss316agen plat sumihardagen round bar besi aisi 440s45cagen round bar scm440agen steel railagen steel sheet piledistributor astm a283 cdistributor pipa boilerdistributor plat abrex 400distributor plat asme516 grade70distributor plat astm a285 cdistributor plat astm516 70distributor plat boilerdistributor plat hb 400distributor plat high strenghtdistributor plat high tensile sm490 ybdistributor plat high tensile sm490yadistributor plat kapaldistributor plat stainless ss304distributor plat stainless ss310distributor plat stainless ss316distributor plat sumiharddistributor round bar besi aisi 440s45cdistributor round bar scm440distributor steel raildistributor steel sheet pilejual astm a283 cjual baja h beamjual pipa boilerjual plat abrex 400jual plat asme516 grade70jual plat astm a285 cjual plat astm516 70jual plat boilerjual plat hardoxjual plat hb 400jual plat high strenghtjual plat high tensile sm490 ybjual plat high tensile sm490yajual plat kapaljual plat stainless ss304jual plat stainless ss310jual plat stainless ss316jual plat sumihardjual round bar besi aisi 440s45cjual round bar scm440jual steel railjual steel sheet pilepabrik astm a283 cpabrik pipa boilerpabrik plat abrex 400pabrik plat asme516 grade70pabrik plat astm516 70pabrik plat boilerpabrik plat hb 400pabrik plat high tensile sm490 ybpabrik plat high tensile sm490yapabrik plat kapalpabrik plat stainless ss304pabrik plat stainless ss310pabrik round bar besi aisi 440s45cpabrik round bar scm440pabrik steel railpabrik steel sheet pilepusat astm a283 cpusat pipa boilerpusat plat abrex 400pusat plat asme516 grade70pusat plat astm a285 cpusat plat astm516 70pusat plat boilerpusat plat hardoxpusat plat hb 400pusat plat high strenghtpusat plat high tensile sm490 ybpusat plat high tensile sm490yapusat plat kapalpusat plat stainless ss304pusat plat stainless ss310pusat plat stainless ss316pusat plat sumihardpusat round bar besi aisi 440s45cpusat round bar scm440pusat steel railpusat steel sheet pilestockis plat hardoxstockist plat astm a285 cstockist plat high strenghtstockist plat stainless ss316stockist plat sumihardsupplier plat hardoxplat stainless ss201plat sphc poplat putih spcc sdplat hitam ss400plat hitam sphcplat cortenplat astm a36plat alumuniumplat abrex 500plat abrex 450plain barpipa sch80pipa sch40pipa sch160pipa sch120pipa sch10pipa medium galvanisperforated plategrating size galvanisexpanded metaldeformed barbesi wiremeshbesi unpbesi cnpbesi baja wfbeambaja h beam

    Leave a comment

    Women, Legislation & the Institutions 

    It was during the First World War that many women had their first experience of engineering work; although women did work in factories before this, it was largely in operating machinery rather than in building or maintaining it. Women were trained in engineering work under the policy of dilution; women carried out many tasks that had previously been done by skilled men. By 1918 almost 1 million women were working in engineering and munitions. Although it was shown that trained women performed extremely well, the 1919 Restoration of Pre-War Practices Act forced women to give up their jobs to men returning from military service. Unions such as the Amalgamated Society of Engineers (ASE) were against female engineers, viewing them as competition for their members; the forced loss of women’s jobs was part of the terms of an ASE negotiated Government agreement. We have to remember the context of course - these men had left jobs to fight and were returning having experienced unfathomable distress, they now had to support themselves and their families.

    Cleone de Heveningham Benest wrote to the Institution of Automotive Engineers (IAE) asking if women can enter as Graduates in 1907. It was decided against but that interested ladies could receive reports of Proceedings in the meantime” . In 1914 IAE Member Lucien Alphonse Legros put the matter before Council, arguing that women should be admitted. In the same year Dorothée Aurélie Marianne Pullinger applied as an Associate as the bye-laws stated a “person” could apply. However, on advice from the Royal Society it was advised that a person meant a man - Legros and Pullinger were duly refused. Another request, on the basis that women’s war work had altered things, was put forward internally in 1916 but it was again denied. Things changed in 1920, IAE accepted a request from WES to accept women. The first two to join were Benest and Pullinger, they were admitted in the same session in 1920.

    IAE merged with the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) in 1947. Founded in 1847, the bye-laws explicitly excluded women. However, they changed their outlook in 1920 following the passage of the Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act. This specifically stated that sex or marital status could not be a bar to admission to any incorporated society and forbade Universities from regulating the admission of women. IMechE’s lawyer advised that he, him and his” now had to read he or she” in the bye-laws etc. He added that all other qualifications required for membership remained unchanged – a female applicant for membership would have to meet the same technical and educational standards as male applicants. It was presumably with this advice in mind that IMechE Minutes contain a footnote stating that the decision in December 1920 not to elect Miss Verena Holmes as a member “was made strictly on the merits of the case, and without prejudice on account of the candidate’s sex”. Holmes was elected in 1924, becoming the IMechE’s first female Member. The first woman member of the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) was Dorothy Donaldson Buchanan in 1927. 

    Although it took pressure from WES and legislation to ease the passage of women into some institutions, others were ahead of the issue. The Institution of Engineering and Technology's (IET) first female Student, Graduate and Associate Member was Gertrude Entwisle (1916, 1919 and 1920). However, Hertha Ayrton was their first female member in 1889.

    Both Pullinger and Holmes were active members of WES. It was formed in 1919 by women who wanted to resist the pressure to leave engineering following the War and to promote engineering as a suitable profession for women. WES was active throughout the inter-war years, and was instrumental in mobilizing large numbers of women to enter engineering during the Second World War. It was able to take steps to ensure that women engineers were not subject to the same post-war pressures after 1945.

    Cleone de Heveningham Benest
    Cleone de Heveningham Benest.

    Verena Holmes, application form
    Verena Holmes' application form.

    Haslett papers and image IET Archives.