Defence was required not only on all entrenched fronts but also at home and sea; both for reasons of reconnaissance and fighting. There were many advances in existing methods of defence, as well as new inventions. We have focused on a few, not only pertinent to engineering but also to the conflict and future warfare.

Paravanes

Paravanes were developed 1914-1916 by Lieutenant Burney and Commander Usborne as a direct result of the War, due to the need to destroy oceanic mines. The paravane would be strung out and streamed alongside a towing ship, normally from the bow. The wings of the paravane would tend to force the body away from the towing ship, placing a lateral tension on the towing wire. If the tow cable snagged the cable anchoring a mine then the anchoring cable would be cut, allowing the mine to float to the surface where it could be destroyed by gunfire. If the anchor cable would not part, the mine and the paravane would be brought together and the mine would explode harmlessly against the paravane. The cable could then be retrieved and a replacement paravane fitted. The method was still in use in the Second World War.

Burney developed explosive paravanes as an anti-submarine weapon or a 'high-speed sweep'. It was a paravane, containing 80 pounds (36kg) of TNT towed by an armoured electric cable. The warhead was fired automatically as soon as the submarine touched the paravane or towing cable, or by hand from the ship's bridge. It could be quickly deployed into the water, could be towed up to 25 knots (29mph), and recovery if unsuccessful was reasonably simple.

Mines were used extensively to defend coastlines, shipping, ports and naval bases across the world. The Germans laid mines in shipping lanes to sink merchant and naval vessels serving the Allies, this meant the destruction of vital supplies such as food as well as the lives of seamen. Indeed, psychologically they were powerful weapons, even if not present they raised the fear that they may be. Technically, mining was limited by treaty to areas within three miles of an enemy’s coastline, so as not to endanger neutral ships. However, both sides quickly came to ignore this agreement, and the North Sea became a place of immense danger. This also impacted the neutral countries of Norway and Sweden, which depended heavily on the North Sea for commerce, as the British North Sea coast and areas around ports in the Low Countries were particularly heavily mined. This meant that ships could not move freely. Methods for clearing were also vital to the Royal Navy whose freedom was being limited; mines severely restricted the free manoeuvring of forces. Paravanes were a new weapon in the battle to secure both military and civilian shipping, part of the reason why small vessels were normally used to drag them was because they were more manoeuvrable than larger boats. As one machine was pitted one against the other it was also a relatively safe way of clearing mines.

Mines were also used by the Allies for example; the Royal Navy and the United States Navy laid a huge minefield from the Orkneys to Norway to combat German submarines: from June to October 1918 almost 70,000 mines were laid spanning the North Sea's northern exits; after the war it took 82 ships five months to clear them.

Hydrogen plant

Hydrogen plant

by User Not Found | 11 Sep, 2014

116 comments

Leave a comment
  1. ali | Oct 18, 2017
    I am always searching online for storys that can accommodate me. There is obviously a multiple to understand about this. I feel you made few salubrious points in Attributes moreover. Detain busy, awesome career! harga badal haji
  2. ali | Oct 14, 2017
    For many people this is the best solution here      see how to do it. Learn more on the phallosan forte
  3. pioneerseo | Oct 14, 2017
    Your blogs further more each else volume is so entertaining further serviceable It appoints me befall retreat encore. I will instantly grab your feed to stay informed of any updates. accessoires dcoratifs bougeoirs
  4. Woongests72 | Oct 13, 2017
    This is one of the hottest topic for natural male enhancement, Just take one pill and see the next thing what happened in your bedroom with your partner. Just click on the Vasocor Reviews and read all the guideline about this male enhancement pill.
  5. ali | Oct 13, 2017
    For true fans of this thread I will address      is a free online! Runayslarn Survival Manifestation
  6. Linker SEO | Oct 12, 2017
    I feel truly cheerful to have seen your site page and anticipate such a large number of all the more engaging circumstances perusing here. Much obliged yet again for every one of the points of interest.  minecraftskineditor.net
  7. ali | Oct 11, 2017
    Perkhidmatan Kambing Golek terbaik sekitar Kuala Lumpur, Ampang, Shah Alam, Klang, Bangi, Gombak, Selangor serta Nilai. Berpengalaman dalam mengendalikan servis kambing golek, kambing panggang, kambing bakar untuk sebarang majlis keraian. kambing panggang ampang
  8. Donna | Oct 10, 2017
    Yes it is really an interesting topic for all of us. I have something to show here is the Vasocore the best male enhancement pill.
  9. Randy | Oct 07, 2017
    Thanks for all the lovely tips. I have now subscribing some of your previous work for sure I have a good reading weekend..   Testosterone Booster Reviews
  10. Bentley | Oct 06, 2017
    I have been chasing this kind of resource for a long time. I am glad I came here. Athletic Greens reviews
  11. Maximiliano | Oct 05, 2017
    I keep on visiting your website because of your very useful contents.  we buy houses austin
  12. Mylene | Oct 02, 2017
    It was a great pleasure to visit your website and to enjoy your excellent post here. top 10 protein shakes
  13. Leonard | Oct 02, 2017
    This is also very good post which I really enjoyed reading. Thanks for the share and keep more post coming! all inclusive holidays to ras al khaimah
  14. Linker SEO | Oct 01, 2017
    What’s up, every time i used to check blog posts here in the early hours in the break of day, for the reason that i enjoy to gain knowledge of more and more. API for IoT
  15. Linker SEO | Oct 01, 2017
    Hi I'm Cristian, Italian Gigolò, Accompagnatore. For you it will be a dream to realize, materialize what you were looking for in a man. gigolo iglesias
  16. Joleen Parker | Sep 27, 2017

    Hello everynoe,

     This is Joleen from US and really honour to read this post for me. I'm a big fan of this website, Actually as a profession I am a blogger, writer and at many of the web. Now working for Vasocore the best and great healthy product for mens.

  17. Joleen N. Cortez | Sep 27, 2017

    Thanks for sharing this healthy information. Thanks a lot

    <a data-mce-href="http://reconditionoldbatterylife.com/" href="http://reconditionoldbatterylife.com/" style="font-family:Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:14px;background-color:#ffffff;">Useful Resources</a>

  18. Jim Gorden | Sep 27, 2017

    Hi All,

    Thanks for sharing this healthy information. Its really informative post for everyone and keep up the awesome work.

    <a href="https://healthyzilla.com/vasocore-fіndіng-thе-веst-маlе-еnhаnсеmеnt-ріlls-fоr-yоur-ѕаtіsfасtіоn">Vasocore</a>

  19. Jim Gorden | Sep 27, 2017

    hello everyone!

    This is is Jim Gorden from US State. I'm just looking for some information about <a href="https://healthyzilla.com/vasocore-fіndіng-thе-веst-маlе-еnhаnсеmеnt-ріlls-fоr-yоur-ѕаtіsfасtіоn">Vasocore</a> male enhancement pills and land on this page. Thanks for sharing an interesting post with us

  20. Sandra Dantonio | Sep 25, 2017
    I think you need to find more about Paravanes. I am thinking about read full article
  21. Danny | Sep 25, 2017
    These plan crashed due to engine breakdown. Useful Resources
  22. Lyle | Sep 24, 2017
    Thank you for a very timely and great article. Looking forward to your next amazing article.  white oak grilling plank
  23. Zohra | Sep 24, 2017
    What we have to do is this product on my site. My Website
  24. Athena | Sep 19, 2017

    Extenze review

    Well, as what they have said your website really is fascinating.  

  25. Resources | Sep 14, 2017
    I know your expertise on this. I must say we should have an online discussion on this. Writing only comments will close the discussion straight away! And will restrict the benefits from this information.Resources
  26. Rafa | Sep 07, 2017
    Very nice ras al khaimah deals article. Thanks for the share and have a nice day.
  27. gold companies comparison | Aug 30, 2017
    Interesting topic for a blog. I have been searching the Internet for fun and came upon your website. Fabulous post. Thanks a ton for sharing your knowledge! It is great to see that some people still put in an effort into managing their websites. I'll be sure to check back again real soon.gold companies comparison
  28. buat duit online | Aug 30, 2017
    Fantastic blog you have here. You’ll discover me looking at your stuff often. Saved!buat duit online
  29. al quran digital | Aug 30, 2017
    Thanks for your post. I’ve been thinking about writing a very comparable post over the last couple of weeks, I’ll probably keep it short and sweet and link to this instead if thats cool. Thanks.al quran digital
  30. bercuti | Aug 30, 2017
    Cool stuff you have got and you keep update all of us.bercuti
  31. Click Traffic | Aug 30, 2017
    You completed a few fine points there. I did a search on the subject and found nearly all persons will go along with with your blog.Click Traffic
  32. big data training | Aug 30, 2017
    Please let me know if you’re looking for a article writer for your site. You have some really great posts and I feel I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d absolutely love to write some material for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please send me an email if interested. Thank you!big data training
  33. Agencia Marketing Digital | Aug 30, 2017
    Great knowledge, do anyone mind merely reference back to itAgencia Marketing Digital
  34. the maids cost | Aug 30, 2017
    I gotta favorite this website it seems very helpful .the maids cost
  35. ccna training london | Aug 30, 2017
    I found this is an informative and interesting post so i think so it is very useful and knowledgeable. I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article.ccna training london
  36. gold companies comparison | Aug 30, 2017
    I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don't know what to say except that I have enjoyed reading. Nice blog. I will keep visiting this blog very often.gold companies comparison
  37. Dalton | Aug 29, 2017
    I was looking forward to more updates. Product Launch Formula Review
  38. Miles | Aug 28, 2017
    This was what I have been looking for. All the posted content did impress me. unfiled tax returns
  39. Maridel | Aug 27, 2017
    I simply wanted to tell you that I am new to weblog and definitely liked post. Gonna  bookmark your blog for easy access. fat burners men
  40. Aljur | Aug 27, 2017
    Great drug treatment programmes auckland article it its really informative and innovative keep us posted with new updates. It was really valuable, thanks allot.
  41. zeebah | Aug 20, 2017
    I feel very grateful that I read this. It is very helpful and very informative and I really learned a lot from it.  online cake in Bhopal
  42. Richard | Aug 16, 2017
    Thank you for the time you spend on these amazing post. lapita autograph dubai
  43. panistefanin | Aug 08, 2017

    Thank you for your work on the blog! You're doing a good job!

    acd

  44. Arman | Aug 03, 2017
    I simply look at your site and I think that its exceptionally fascinating and educational.  emergency survival food
  45. ty | Jul 29, 2017
  46. Ramil | Jul 27, 2017
    Just found your site by my friend coz she really loves your blogs. Lovely that you want to share your knowledge and experience and great to have some practical tips, as well. Thank you!  Fat Burners
  47. pioneerseo | Jul 09, 2017
    How Online College Can Let You Live Your Dreams Without Going Broke.Masters Degree
  48. asd | Jun 20, 2017

    Jindalee Aged Care

    This is why you must move to a home for the elderly where such services are provided. Depending on your needs, there are two distinct packages you can choose from; low-level needs and high level needs care.

  49. asd | Jun 19, 2017

    ateamtuition.com

    Finding your learning style

  50. perniagaan aiskrim | Jun 18, 2017
    I gotta favorite this website it seems very helpful .perniagaan aiskrim

    Leave a comment

    The design drawings show how different forms of the weapon were developed and tested, allowing their suitability for a given situation to be tested: although normally from the bow the drawings also show starboard models.
    Airships

    Whilst the British army had favoured the production of aeroplanes over airships before the war, the threat posed by the use of airships by the Italian and German armies pushed the development of both rigid and non-rigid airships. The German Zeppelin and Schütte-Lanz were causing civilian and infrastructure casualties, bringing the war to mainland UK. They also worked as a remarkably strong propaganda tool and became a symbol of fear. The British needed to catch up; the Germans had invested heavily in training and design development and were far ahead of Britain in capability. The onslaught of German submarines against the Fleet also pushed airship construction along.

    In 1916 Short Brothers were awarded a contract to build two large rigid airships for the Admiralty (airships were originally conceived as naval escorts). Short chose a site at Cardington, about two miles south-east of Bedford. With its existing light engineering industry, potential workforce and gentle prevailing winds Bedford was the ideal location.

    The site covered 1086 acres and the total cost was just under £750,000 with up to 800 men involved in the construction at any one time. The site included three main parts: a shed for erecting and housing airships; workshops for manufacture and assembly of component parts; and a hydrogen generating and storage plant. There was also an alloy plant with rolling mills, foundry and furnaces along with blocks containing offices, canteens and garages. The site also boasted a model village for the workers, Shortstown.  

    The airship shed was built with a steel frame and corrugated iron sheeting and was the largest built in Britain at the time. It measured 700ft long by 235ft wide with a clear span of 180ft and height from floor to ridge of just over 144 ft. Huge windscreens 700ft long and 70ft high were built by the entrances to the shed to protect the airships as they were manoeuvred in and out.

    The first airships to be constructed were reproductions of the wooden girder Schutte-Lanz. However, post-war developments led to the design being superceded and the R-38 was constructed for special operations in the North Sea, capable of an altitude in excess of enemy aircraft. During the war over 225 airships were constructed. In particular, they were an effective submarine deterrent when the Navy performed reconnaissance, patrols, mine-hunting and convoy escorting duties. They were responsible for driving them underwater and out of harm’s way where, previously, they had been free to attack. Only once was a ship sunk by a submarine whilst being protected by an airship. Airships also aided the destruction of U-boats. The impact of this was huge, protected shipping could supply arms and goods both to the military and civilian population.

    Cardington was one of only a few airship sites to produce hydrogen for the ships by the water gas process, whereby steam was reduced to hydrogen by passing it over lumps of spongy iron at a high temperature. The iron oxide then needed to be reduced back to iron using blue water gas. However, as this process had to be continuous and lacked flexibility, and as it also required a large, complex and expensive fixed plant with skilled operators, it was impractical compared to the German system.

    The site was nationalised in April 1919, becoming known as the Royal Airship Works. In the 1920’s the wartime shed was extended and another shed added for construction of the R-101 airship. After the R-101 crashed in October 1930 airship construction was abandoned in Britain.  The sheds have since been used for weather balloons and development of parachutes. Airship design has recently returned to Cardington and the sheds are currently being used to build a hybrid airship, and soon to house the British Airship Museum. Started as an expediency of war, the site became central to British airship design.
    Hydrogen plant

    Hydrogen plant

    by User Not Found | 11 Sep, 2014

    116 comments

    Leave a comment
    1. ali | Oct 18, 2017
      I am always searching online for storys that can accommodate me. There is obviously a multiple to understand about this. I feel you made few salubrious points in Attributes moreover. Detain busy, awesome career! harga badal haji
    2. ali | Oct 14, 2017
      For many people this is the best solution here      see how to do it. Learn more on the phallosan forte
    3. pioneerseo | Oct 14, 2017
      Your blogs further more each else volume is so entertaining further serviceable It appoints me befall retreat encore. I will instantly grab your feed to stay informed of any updates. accessoires dcoratifs bougeoirs
    4. Woongests72 | Oct 13, 2017
      This is one of the hottest topic for natural male enhancement, Just take one pill and see the next thing what happened in your bedroom with your partner. Just click on the Vasocor Reviews and read all the guideline about this male enhancement pill.
    5. ali | Oct 13, 2017
      For true fans of this thread I will address      is a free online! Runayslarn Survival Manifestation
    6. Linker SEO | Oct 12, 2017
      I feel truly cheerful to have seen your site page and anticipate such a large number of all the more engaging circumstances perusing here. Much obliged yet again for every one of the points of interest.  minecraftskineditor.net
    7. ali | Oct 11, 2017
      Perkhidmatan Kambing Golek terbaik sekitar Kuala Lumpur, Ampang, Shah Alam, Klang, Bangi, Gombak, Selangor serta Nilai. Berpengalaman dalam mengendalikan servis kambing golek, kambing panggang, kambing bakar untuk sebarang majlis keraian. kambing panggang ampang
    8. Donna | Oct 10, 2017
      Yes it is really an interesting topic for all of us. I have something to show here is the Vasocore the best male enhancement pill.
    9. Randy | Oct 07, 2017
      Thanks for all the lovely tips. I have now subscribing some of your previous work for sure I have a good reading weekend..   Testosterone Booster Reviews
    10. Bentley | Oct 06, 2017
      I have been chasing this kind of resource for a long time. I am glad I came here. Athletic Greens reviews
    11. Maximiliano | Oct 05, 2017
      I keep on visiting your website because of your very useful contents.  we buy houses austin
    12. Mylene | Oct 02, 2017
      It was a great pleasure to visit your website and to enjoy your excellent post here. top 10 protein shakes
    13. Leonard | Oct 02, 2017
      This is also very good post which I really enjoyed reading. Thanks for the share and keep more post coming! all inclusive holidays to ras al khaimah
    14. Linker SEO | Oct 01, 2017
      What’s up, every time i used to check blog posts here in the early hours in the break of day, for the reason that i enjoy to gain knowledge of more and more. API for IoT
    15. Linker SEO | Oct 01, 2017
      Hi I'm Cristian, Italian Gigolò, Accompagnatore. For you it will be a dream to realize, materialize what you were looking for in a man. gigolo iglesias
    16. Joleen Parker | Sep 27, 2017

      Hello everynoe,

       This is Joleen from US and really honour to read this post for me. I'm a big fan of this website, Actually as a profession I am a blogger, writer and at many of the web. Now working for Vasocore the best and great healthy product for mens.

    17. Joleen N. Cortez | Sep 27, 2017

      Thanks for sharing this healthy information. Thanks a lot

      <a data-mce-href="http://reconditionoldbatterylife.com/" href="http://reconditionoldbatterylife.com/" style="font-family:Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:14px;background-color:#ffffff;">Useful Resources</a>

    18. Jim Gorden | Sep 27, 2017

      Hi All,

      Thanks for sharing this healthy information. Its really informative post for everyone and keep up the awesome work.

      <a href="https://healthyzilla.com/vasocore-fіndіng-thе-веst-маlе-еnhаnсеmеnt-ріlls-fоr-yоur-ѕаtіsfасtіоn">Vasocore</a>

    19. Jim Gorden | Sep 27, 2017

      hello everyone!

      This is is Jim Gorden from US State. I'm just looking for some information about <a href="https://healthyzilla.com/vasocore-fіndіng-thе-веst-маlе-еnhаnсеmеnt-ріlls-fоr-yоur-ѕаtіsfасtіоn">Vasocore</a> male enhancement pills and land on this page. Thanks for sharing an interesting post with us

    20. Sandra Dantonio | Sep 25, 2017
      I think you need to find more about Paravanes. I am thinking about read full article
    21. Danny | Sep 25, 2017
      These plan crashed due to engine breakdown. Useful Resources
    22. Lyle | Sep 24, 2017
      Thank you for a very timely and great article. Looking forward to your next amazing article.  white oak grilling plank
    23. Zohra | Sep 24, 2017
      What we have to do is this product on my site. My Website
    24. Athena | Sep 19, 2017

      Extenze review

      Well, as what they have said your website really is fascinating.  

    25. Resources | Sep 14, 2017
      I know your expertise on this. I must say we should have an online discussion on this. Writing only comments will close the discussion straight away! And will restrict the benefits from this information.Resources
    26. Rafa | Sep 07, 2017
      Very nice ras al khaimah deals article. Thanks for the share and have a nice day.
    27. gold companies comparison | Aug 30, 2017
      Interesting topic for a blog. I have been searching the Internet for fun and came upon your website. Fabulous post. Thanks a ton for sharing your knowledge! It is great to see that some people still put in an effort into managing their websites. I'll be sure to check back again real soon.gold companies comparison
    28. buat duit online | Aug 30, 2017
      Fantastic blog you have here. You’ll discover me looking at your stuff often. Saved!buat duit online
    29. al quran digital | Aug 30, 2017
      Thanks for your post. I’ve been thinking about writing a very comparable post over the last couple of weeks, I’ll probably keep it short and sweet and link to this instead if thats cool. Thanks.al quran digital
    30. bercuti | Aug 30, 2017
      Cool stuff you have got and you keep update all of us.bercuti
    31. Click Traffic | Aug 30, 2017
      You completed a few fine points there. I did a search on the subject and found nearly all persons will go along with with your blog.Click Traffic
    32. big data training | Aug 30, 2017
      Please let me know if you’re looking for a article writer for your site. You have some really great posts and I feel I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d absolutely love to write some material for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please send me an email if interested. Thank you!big data training
    33. Agencia Marketing Digital | Aug 30, 2017
      Great knowledge, do anyone mind merely reference back to itAgencia Marketing Digital
    34. the maids cost | Aug 30, 2017
      I gotta favorite this website it seems very helpful .the maids cost
    35. ccna training london | Aug 30, 2017
      I found this is an informative and interesting post so i think so it is very useful and knowledgeable. I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article.ccna training london
    36. gold companies comparison | Aug 30, 2017
      I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don't know what to say except that I have enjoyed reading. Nice blog. I will keep visiting this blog very often.gold companies comparison
    37. Dalton | Aug 29, 2017
      I was looking forward to more updates. Product Launch Formula Review
    38. Miles | Aug 28, 2017
      This was what I have been looking for. All the posted content did impress me. unfiled tax returns
    39. Maridel | Aug 27, 2017
      I simply wanted to tell you that I am new to weblog and definitely liked post. Gonna  bookmark your blog for easy access. fat burners men
    40. Aljur | Aug 27, 2017
      Great drug treatment programmes auckland article it its really informative and innovative keep us posted with new updates. It was really valuable, thanks allot.
    41. zeebah | Aug 20, 2017
      I feel very grateful that I read this. It is very helpful and very informative and I really learned a lot from it.  online cake in Bhopal
    42. Richard | Aug 16, 2017
      Thank you for the time you spend on these amazing post. lapita autograph dubai
    43. panistefanin | Aug 08, 2017

      Thank you for your work on the blog! You're doing a good job!

      acd

    44. Arman | Aug 03, 2017
      I simply look at your site and I think that its exceptionally fascinating and educational.  emergency survival food
    45. ty | Jul 29, 2017
    46. Ramil | Jul 27, 2017
      Just found your site by my friend coz she really loves your blogs. Lovely that you want to share your knowledge and experience and great to have some practical tips, as well. Thank you!  Fat Burners
    47. pioneerseo | Jul 09, 2017
      How Online College Can Let You Live Your Dreams Without Going Broke.Masters Degree
    48. asd | Jun 20, 2017

      Jindalee Aged Care

      This is why you must move to a home for the elderly where such services are provided. Depending on your needs, there are two distinct packages you can choose from; low-level needs and high level needs care.

    49. asd | Jun 19, 2017

      ateamtuition.com

      Finding your learning style

    50. perniagaan aiskrim | Jun 18, 2017
      I gotta favorite this website it seems very helpful .perniagaan aiskrim

      Leave a comment

      Images showing various stages of the construction of Cardington and the model village for workers.


      German U-boat film from the war, airships became a major weapon against submarines.

      Caterpillars and Tanks

      "It was a weapon designed for one simple task: crossing the killing zone between trench lines and breaking into enemy defenses [sic]." 1

      In 1904 David Roberts had patented a train track tractor, trials in 1907 led troops to nickname the track tractor the ‘caterpillar’. A tracked trailer was also designed, on which to load and move guns. The vehicle was devised for transportation; it was not intended as a weapon. It was the expediency of the war that led to further developments. It was the need to mount trenches and break the stalemate of troop/ground warfare that led people to make the association between a tracked vehicle and an armoured vehicle: these concepts would be combined to create the tank. Unlike the caterpillar, the tank had no sprung suspension and the track plates were an improved in order to deal with wartime conditions.

      The Ministry of Defence had rejected the idea of tracked vehicles and sold the patent to Holt Manufacturing Company in 1911: the army, therefore, had to purchase caterpillar tractors from The Caterpillar Tractor Company (as Holt had become) for transportation uses in the war.

      The tank was not the first armoured vehicle but previous incarnations required level surfaces on which to move. It became increasingly apparent that what was required was a self-propelled vehicle which could run on rough terrain. The urgency for such a weapon was due to the stalemate on the Western Front, where months and many lives were spent edging forwards and back. Trench warfare required a vechile which could overcome rough terraine. Accordingly, the tank was devised to survive artillery fire and move through barbed wire thus progressing into territory troops could not go on foot without severe reprocussions and loss of life. The innovation was eventually successful in attack, although during the First World War it was not realised that 20 years later the tank would be a major weapon of warfare.

      The combined efforts of the Admiralty and the War Office led to a prototype being trialled in 1915, it was affectionately known as 'Little Willie'. In early 1916 some changes led to the building of 'Big Willie', officially known as Mk 1 it was also called 'Mother' (to denote how it gave birth to all future tanks and associated developments).

      The tank was first used at the Battle of the Somme (1916), its impact was psychological rather militaristic; records show that of the 49 tanks which took part in the engagement, 17 broke down before they reached the front line, 9 more broke down at the front line and 5 got bogged down during the attack. However, its invulnerability to small arms fire and use for subduing machine gun fire and crushing barbed wire was established (this opened the way for an infantry attack to follow). However, as they were sent ahead of artillery barrages all assault surprise was lost. It took until 1917, at the battle of Cambrai, for the tank to show its effectiveness in battle. They were used in large numbers without the following artillery bombardment and the massed surprise assault achieved a spectacular breakthrough.

      By the end of the war, engine developments meant faster tanks were being manufactured. It seemed that the Allies, at last, had the answer to the problem of strategic penetration following a break-through. However, the war ended before this could be proven - the British Tank Corps had planned to use 10000 tanks in an independent mass assault. Somewhat ironically, it was for the German Panzer units of the Second World War to prove this.

      Hydrogen plant

      Hydrogen plant

      by User Not Found | 11 Sep, 2014

      116 comments

      Leave a comment
      1. ali | Oct 18, 2017
        I am always searching online for storys that can accommodate me. There is obviously a multiple to understand about this. I feel you made few salubrious points in Attributes moreover. Detain busy, awesome career! harga badal haji
      2. ali | Oct 14, 2017
        For many people this is the best solution here      see how to do it. Learn more on the phallosan forte
      3. pioneerseo | Oct 14, 2017
        Your blogs further more each else volume is so entertaining further serviceable It appoints me befall retreat encore. I will instantly grab your feed to stay informed of any updates. accessoires dcoratifs bougeoirs
      4. Woongests72 | Oct 13, 2017
        This is one of the hottest topic for natural male enhancement, Just take one pill and see the next thing what happened in your bedroom with your partner. Just click on the Vasocor Reviews and read all the guideline about this male enhancement pill.
      5. ali | Oct 13, 2017
        For true fans of this thread I will address      is a free online! Runayslarn Survival Manifestation
      6. Linker SEO | Oct 12, 2017
        I feel truly cheerful to have seen your site page and anticipate such a large number of all the more engaging circumstances perusing here. Much obliged yet again for every one of the points of interest.  minecraftskineditor.net
      7. ali | Oct 11, 2017
        Perkhidmatan Kambing Golek terbaik sekitar Kuala Lumpur, Ampang, Shah Alam, Klang, Bangi, Gombak, Selangor serta Nilai. Berpengalaman dalam mengendalikan servis kambing golek, kambing panggang, kambing bakar untuk sebarang majlis keraian. kambing panggang ampang
      8. Donna | Oct 10, 2017
        Yes it is really an interesting topic for all of us. I have something to show here is the Vasocore the best male enhancement pill.
      9. Randy | Oct 07, 2017
        Thanks for all the lovely tips. I have now subscribing some of your previous work for sure I have a good reading weekend..   Testosterone Booster Reviews
      10. Bentley | Oct 06, 2017
        I have been chasing this kind of resource for a long time. I am glad I came here. Athletic Greens reviews
      11. Maximiliano | Oct 05, 2017
        I keep on visiting your website because of your very useful contents.  we buy houses austin
      12. Mylene | Oct 02, 2017
        It was a great pleasure to visit your website and to enjoy your excellent post here. top 10 protein shakes
      13. Leonard | Oct 02, 2017
        This is also very good post which I really enjoyed reading. Thanks for the share and keep more post coming! all inclusive holidays to ras al khaimah
      14. Linker SEO | Oct 01, 2017
        What’s up, every time i used to check blog posts here in the early hours in the break of day, for the reason that i enjoy to gain knowledge of more and more. API for IoT
      15. Linker SEO | Oct 01, 2017
        Hi I'm Cristian, Italian Gigolò, Accompagnatore. For you it will be a dream to realize, materialize what you were looking for in a man. gigolo iglesias
      16. Joleen Parker | Sep 27, 2017

        Hello everynoe,

         This is Joleen from US and really honour to read this post for me. I'm a big fan of this website, Actually as a profession I am a blogger, writer and at many of the web. Now working for Vasocore the best and great healthy product for mens.

      17. Joleen N. Cortez | Sep 27, 2017

        Thanks for sharing this healthy information. Thanks a lot

        <a data-mce-href="http://reconditionoldbatterylife.com/" href="http://reconditionoldbatterylife.com/" style="font-family:Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:14px;background-color:#ffffff;">Useful Resources</a>

      18. Jim Gorden | Sep 27, 2017

        Hi All,

        Thanks for sharing this healthy information. Its really informative post for everyone and keep up the awesome work.

        <a href="https://healthyzilla.com/vasocore-fіndіng-thе-веst-маlе-еnhаnсеmеnt-ріlls-fоr-yоur-ѕаtіsfасtіоn">Vasocore</a>

      19. Jim Gorden | Sep 27, 2017

        hello everyone!

        This is is Jim Gorden from US State. I'm just looking for some information about <a href="https://healthyzilla.com/vasocore-fіndіng-thе-веst-маlе-еnhаnсеmеnt-ріlls-fоr-yоur-ѕаtіsfасtіоn">Vasocore</a> male enhancement pills and land on this page. Thanks for sharing an interesting post with us

      20. Sandra Dantonio | Sep 25, 2017
        I think you need to find more about Paravanes. I am thinking about read full article
      21. Danny | Sep 25, 2017
        These plan crashed due to engine breakdown. Useful Resources
      22. Lyle | Sep 24, 2017
        Thank you for a very timely and great article. Looking forward to your next amazing article.  white oak grilling plank
      23. Zohra | Sep 24, 2017
        What we have to do is this product on my site. My Website
      24. Athena | Sep 19, 2017

        Extenze review

        Well, as what they have said your website really is fascinating.  

      25. Resources | Sep 14, 2017
        I know your expertise on this. I must say we should have an online discussion on this. Writing only comments will close the discussion straight away! And will restrict the benefits from this information.Resources
      26. Rafa | Sep 07, 2017
        Very nice ras al khaimah deals article. Thanks for the share and have a nice day.
      27. gold companies comparison | Aug 30, 2017
        Interesting topic for a blog. I have been searching the Internet for fun and came upon your website. Fabulous post. Thanks a ton for sharing your knowledge! It is great to see that some people still put in an effort into managing their websites. I'll be sure to check back again real soon.gold companies comparison
      28. buat duit online | Aug 30, 2017
        Fantastic blog you have here. You’ll discover me looking at your stuff often. Saved!buat duit online
      29. al quran digital | Aug 30, 2017
        Thanks for your post. I’ve been thinking about writing a very comparable post over the last couple of weeks, I’ll probably keep it short and sweet and link to this instead if thats cool. Thanks.al quran digital
      30. bercuti | Aug 30, 2017
        Cool stuff you have got and you keep update all of us.bercuti
      31. Click Traffic | Aug 30, 2017
        You completed a few fine points there. I did a search on the subject and found nearly all persons will go along with with your blog.Click Traffic
      32. big data training | Aug 30, 2017
        Please let me know if you’re looking for a article writer for your site. You have some really great posts and I feel I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d absolutely love to write some material for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please send me an email if interested. Thank you!big data training
      33. Agencia Marketing Digital | Aug 30, 2017
        Great knowledge, do anyone mind merely reference back to itAgencia Marketing Digital
      34. the maids cost | Aug 30, 2017
        I gotta favorite this website it seems very helpful .the maids cost
      35. ccna training london | Aug 30, 2017
        I found this is an informative and interesting post so i think so it is very useful and knowledgeable. I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article.ccna training london
      36. gold companies comparison | Aug 30, 2017
        I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don't know what to say except that I have enjoyed reading. Nice blog. I will keep visiting this blog very often.gold companies comparison
      37. Dalton | Aug 29, 2017
        I was looking forward to more updates. Product Launch Formula Review
      38. Miles | Aug 28, 2017
        This was what I have been looking for. All the posted content did impress me. unfiled tax returns
      39. Maridel | Aug 27, 2017
        I simply wanted to tell you that I am new to weblog and definitely liked post. Gonna  bookmark your blog for easy access. fat burners men
      40. Aljur | Aug 27, 2017
        Great drug treatment programmes auckland article it its really informative and innovative keep us posted with new updates. It was really valuable, thanks allot.
      41. zeebah | Aug 20, 2017
        I feel very grateful that I read this. It is very helpful and very informative and I really learned a lot from it.  online cake in Bhopal
      42. Richard | Aug 16, 2017
        Thank you for the time you spend on these amazing post. lapita autograph dubai
      43. panistefanin | Aug 08, 2017

        Thank you for your work on the blog! You're doing a good job!

        acd

      44. Arman | Aug 03, 2017
        I simply look at your site and I think that its exceptionally fascinating and educational.  emergency survival food
      45. ty | Jul 29, 2017
      46. Ramil | Jul 27, 2017
        Just found your site by my friend coz she really loves your blogs. Lovely that you want to share your knowledge and experience and great to have some practical tips, as well. Thank you!  Fat Burners
      47. pioneerseo | Jul 09, 2017
        How Online College Can Let You Live Your Dreams Without Going Broke.Masters Degree
      48. asd | Jun 20, 2017

        Jindalee Aged Care

        This is why you must move to a home for the elderly where such services are provided. Depending on your needs, there are two distinct packages you can choose from; low-level needs and high level needs care.

      49. asd | Jun 19, 2017

        ateamtuition.com

        Finding your learning style

      50. perniagaan aiskrim | Jun 18, 2017
        I gotta favorite this website it seems very helpful .perniagaan aiskrim

        Leave a comment

        The photographs show a range of armoured vehicles used in wartime, primarily as transporters, as well as a prototype tank. To read more on the design and development of the tanks during and since the war click here.
        Aircraft

        Flying was only 11 years old in 1914. Originally planes were not used for defence but for recognisance: photographing positions/battle sites and as radio cover for troop movements during battle. At first the weight of weapons and their interference with the propeller meant that they were not armed with a forward firing machine gun, meaning they could not be used as a weapon. The invention of the interrupter gear (a synchronization device which meant bullets did not shoot the propeller) in 1915 was a major engineering development which made aerial warfare possible for the first time. It also signifies the technological battle raging between the two sides. Roland Garros, a French army aviator, had a Morane-Saulnier Type L with gun fitted: he shot down the first ever aircraft (German) with a tractor propeller on 1 April 1915; this was followed by two more successful 'kills'. On the 18th he was captured by the Germans but he failed to destroy his aircraft completely before being taken prisoner: most significantly, the gun and armoured propeller remained intact. Apparently this led engineer Anthony Fokker to design the improved interrupter gear system; in truth he had been working on it for at least six months but it is plausible the discovery and study of a working interrupter advanced his work. It was now the Allied planes that were in danger, such was the impact of his invention that the ensuing ascendancy in the air of the German's became known as the Fokker's Scrouge.

        In fact the work on Fokker's system had been going for at least six months before Garros' aircraft fell into their hands. With the advent of the interrupter gear the tables were turned on the Allies, with Fokker's planes shooting down many Allied aircraft, leading to what became known as the Fokker Scourge. The Allies were essential defenceless. Technology caught up and by the summer of 1916 the Allies also had forward firing machine guns with new lighter/more agile planes. Their recognisance role remained vital however for example, playing a key role at the Battle of the Somme.

        Aircraft was also used against the German U-boats, taking off initially from ships. In 1916 the Blackburn Aircraft Company designed and built two prototypes of an anti-submarine floatplane, the Blackburn General Purpose. On their own initiative Blackburn then developed a landplane version, the Blackburn R.T.1 Kangaroo (Reconnaissance Torpedo Type 1). Test results in early 1918 were disappointing, with the rear fuselage being prone to twisting and the aircraft suffering control problems, the order was cut from 50 to 20. However, a more powerful Rolls-Royce Falcon III engine replaced the 250 hp (120 kW) Rolls-Royce Falcon II that had been used. The Kangaroo entered service with No. 246 Squadron RAF and saw six months of operations, sinking one U-boat and damaging another four. After the war they were converted for civilian use, being used as a regular passenger service between Roundhay Park (Leeds) and Hounslow Heath, then in 1920 onto to Amsterdam. On 21 November 1919, one Kangaroo (G-EAOW) took off from Hounslow Heath in an attempt to win the Australian government prize of AUD 10,000 for the first Australian airman to fly a British aircraft from the UK to Australia within 30 consecutive days. The Kangaroo was forced to make an emergency landing at Suda Bay, Crete with a suspected sabotaged engine, and the aircraft was abandoned there.

        Hydrogen plant

        Hydrogen plant

        by User Not Found | 11 Sep, 2014

        116 comments

        Leave a comment
        1. ali | Oct 18, 2017
          I am always searching online for storys that can accommodate me. There is obviously a multiple to understand about this. I feel you made few salubrious points in Attributes moreover. Detain busy, awesome career! harga badal haji
        2. ali | Oct 14, 2017
          For many people this is the best solution here      see how to do it. Learn more on the phallosan forte
        3. pioneerseo | Oct 14, 2017
          Your blogs further more each else volume is so entertaining further serviceable It appoints me befall retreat encore. I will instantly grab your feed to stay informed of any updates. accessoires dcoratifs bougeoirs
        4. Woongests72 | Oct 13, 2017
          This is one of the hottest topic for natural male enhancement, Just take one pill and see the next thing what happened in your bedroom with your partner. Just click on the Vasocor Reviews and read all the guideline about this male enhancement pill.
        5. ali | Oct 13, 2017
          For true fans of this thread I will address      is a free online! Runayslarn Survival Manifestation
        6. Linker SEO | Oct 12, 2017
          I feel truly cheerful to have seen your site page and anticipate such a large number of all the more engaging circumstances perusing here. Much obliged yet again for every one of the points of interest.  minecraftskineditor.net
        7. ali | Oct 11, 2017
          Perkhidmatan Kambing Golek terbaik sekitar Kuala Lumpur, Ampang, Shah Alam, Klang, Bangi, Gombak, Selangor serta Nilai. Berpengalaman dalam mengendalikan servis kambing golek, kambing panggang, kambing bakar untuk sebarang majlis keraian. kambing panggang ampang
        8. Donna | Oct 10, 2017
          Yes it is really an interesting topic for all of us. I have something to show here is the Vasocore the best male enhancement pill.
        9. Randy | Oct 07, 2017
          Thanks for all the lovely tips. I have now subscribing some of your previous work for sure I have a good reading weekend..   Testosterone Booster Reviews
        10. Bentley | Oct 06, 2017
          I have been chasing this kind of resource for a long time. I am glad I came here. Athletic Greens reviews
        11. Maximiliano | Oct 05, 2017
          I keep on visiting your website because of your very useful contents.  we buy houses austin
        12. Mylene | Oct 02, 2017
          It was a great pleasure to visit your website and to enjoy your excellent post here. top 10 protein shakes
        13. Leonard | Oct 02, 2017
          This is also very good post which I really enjoyed reading. Thanks for the share and keep more post coming! all inclusive holidays to ras al khaimah
        14. Linker SEO | Oct 01, 2017
          What’s up, every time i used to check blog posts here in the early hours in the break of day, for the reason that i enjoy to gain knowledge of more and more. API for IoT
        15. Linker SEO | Oct 01, 2017
          Hi I'm Cristian, Italian Gigolò, Accompagnatore. For you it will be a dream to realize, materialize what you were looking for in a man. gigolo iglesias
        16. Joleen Parker | Sep 27, 2017

          Hello everynoe,

           This is Joleen from US and really honour to read this post for me. I'm a big fan of this website, Actually as a profession I am a blogger, writer and at many of the web. Now working for Vasocore the best and great healthy product for mens.

        17. Joleen N. Cortez | Sep 27, 2017

          Thanks for sharing this healthy information. Thanks a lot

          <a data-mce-href="http://reconditionoldbatterylife.com/" href="http://reconditionoldbatterylife.com/" style="font-family:Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:14px;background-color:#ffffff;">Useful Resources</a>

        18. Jim Gorden | Sep 27, 2017

          Hi All,

          Thanks for sharing this healthy information. Its really informative post for everyone and keep up the awesome work.

          <a href="https://healthyzilla.com/vasocore-fіndіng-thе-веst-маlе-еnhаnсеmеnt-ріlls-fоr-yоur-ѕаtіsfасtіоn">Vasocore</a>

        19. Jim Gorden | Sep 27, 2017

          hello everyone!

          This is is Jim Gorden from US State. I'm just looking for some information about <a href="https://healthyzilla.com/vasocore-fіndіng-thе-веst-маlе-еnhаnсеmеnt-ріlls-fоr-yоur-ѕаtіsfасtіоn">Vasocore</a> male enhancement pills and land on this page. Thanks for sharing an interesting post with us

        20. Sandra Dantonio | Sep 25, 2017
          I think you need to find more about Paravanes. I am thinking about read full article
        21. Danny | Sep 25, 2017
          These plan crashed due to engine breakdown. Useful Resources
        22. Lyle | Sep 24, 2017
          Thank you for a very timely and great article. Looking forward to your next amazing article.  white oak grilling plank
        23. Zohra | Sep 24, 2017
          What we have to do is this product on my site. My Website
        24. Athena | Sep 19, 2017

          Extenze review

          Well, as what they have said your website really is fascinating.  

        25. Resources | Sep 14, 2017
          I know your expertise on this. I must say we should have an online discussion on this. Writing only comments will close the discussion straight away! And will restrict the benefits from this information.Resources
        26. Rafa | Sep 07, 2017
          Very nice ras al khaimah deals article. Thanks for the share and have a nice day.
        27. gold companies comparison | Aug 30, 2017
          Interesting topic for a blog. I have been searching the Internet for fun and came upon your website. Fabulous post. Thanks a ton for sharing your knowledge! It is great to see that some people still put in an effort into managing their websites. I'll be sure to check back again real soon.gold companies comparison
        28. buat duit online | Aug 30, 2017
          Fantastic blog you have here. You’ll discover me looking at your stuff often. Saved!buat duit online
        29. al quran digital | Aug 30, 2017
          Thanks for your post. I’ve been thinking about writing a very comparable post over the last couple of weeks, I’ll probably keep it short and sweet and link to this instead if thats cool. Thanks.al quran digital
        30. bercuti | Aug 30, 2017
          Cool stuff you have got and you keep update all of us.bercuti
        31. Click Traffic | Aug 30, 2017
          You completed a few fine points there. I did a search on the subject and found nearly all persons will go along with with your blog.Click Traffic
        32. big data training | Aug 30, 2017
          Please let me know if you’re looking for a article writer for your site. You have some really great posts and I feel I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d absolutely love to write some material for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please send me an email if interested. Thank you!big data training
        33. Agencia Marketing Digital | Aug 30, 2017
          Great knowledge, do anyone mind merely reference back to itAgencia Marketing Digital
        34. the maids cost | Aug 30, 2017
          I gotta favorite this website it seems very helpful .the maids cost
        35. ccna training london | Aug 30, 2017
          I found this is an informative and interesting post so i think so it is very useful and knowledgeable. I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article.ccna training london
        36. gold companies comparison | Aug 30, 2017
          I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don't know what to say except that I have enjoyed reading. Nice blog. I will keep visiting this blog very often.gold companies comparison
        37. Dalton | Aug 29, 2017
          I was looking forward to more updates. Product Launch Formula Review
        38. Miles | Aug 28, 2017
          This was what I have been looking for. All the posted content did impress me. unfiled tax returns
        39. Maridel | Aug 27, 2017
          I simply wanted to tell you that I am new to weblog and definitely liked post. Gonna  bookmark your blog for easy access. fat burners men
        40. Aljur | Aug 27, 2017
          Great drug treatment programmes auckland article it its really informative and innovative keep us posted with new updates. It was really valuable, thanks allot.
        41. zeebah | Aug 20, 2017
          I feel very grateful that I read this. It is very helpful and very informative and I really learned a lot from it.  online cake in Bhopal
        42. Richard | Aug 16, 2017
          Thank you for the time you spend on these amazing post. lapita autograph dubai
        43. panistefanin | Aug 08, 2017

          Thank you for your work on the blog! You're doing a good job!

          acd

        44. Arman | Aug 03, 2017
          I simply look at your site and I think that its exceptionally fascinating and educational.  emergency survival food
        45. ty | Jul 29, 2017
        46. Ramil | Jul 27, 2017
          Just found your site by my friend coz she really loves your blogs. Lovely that you want to share your knowledge and experience and great to have some practical tips, as well. Thank you!  Fat Burners
        47. pioneerseo | Jul 09, 2017
          How Online College Can Let You Live Your Dreams Without Going Broke.Masters Degree
        48. asd | Jun 20, 2017

          Jindalee Aged Care

          This is why you must move to a home for the elderly where such services are provided. Depending on your needs, there are two distinct packages you can choose from; low-level needs and high level needs care.

        49. asd | Jun 19, 2017

          ateamtuition.com

          Finding your learning style

        50. perniagaan aiskrim | Jun 18, 2017
          I gotta favorite this website it seems very helpful .perniagaan aiskrim

          Leave a comment

          Design drawings for Whitworth-Armstrong Vickers machine gun mount. See more on the Resources page.

          Anthony Fokker with his plane
          Fokker with the plane he obtained his flying license in, 1911. He is chatting to pilot Nyenhoff, who flew it in an air show in 1936.

          Blackburn Kangaroo
          Blackburn Kangaroo, preparing to fly in Australia in 1919.

          Credits/footnotes:

          ​Williamson Murray, "Armoured Warfare: The British, French, and German Experiences," in Murray, Williamson; Millet, Allan R, eds. (1996). Military Innovation in the Interwar Period. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-521-63760-0.

          Images:

          Paravane design drawings; The Mk I tank ‘Big Willie’; Aircraft images; and machine gun mount design drawings/papers.  IMechE Archive.

          Photographs of  track tractors being used in South Africa, ICE Archive.