Defence was required not only on all entrenched fronts but also at home and sea; both for reasons of reconnaissance and fighting. There were many advances in existing methods of defence, as well as new inventions. We have focused on a few, not only pertinent to engineering but also to the conflict and future warfare.

Paravanes

Paravanes were developed 1914-1916 by Lieutenant Burney and Commander Usborne as a direct result of the War, due to the need to destroy oceanic mines. The paravane would be strung out and streamed alongside a towing ship, normally from the bow. The wings of the paravane would tend to force the body away from the towing ship, placing a lateral tension on the towing wire. If the tow cable snagged the cable anchoring a mine then the anchoring cable would be cut, allowing the mine to float to the surface where it could be destroyed by gunfire. If the anchor cable would not part, the mine and the paravane would be brought together and the mine would explode harmlessly against the paravane. The cable could then be retrieved and a replacement paravane fitted. The method was still in use in the Second World War.

Burney developed explosive paravanes as an anti-submarine weapon or a 'high-speed sweep'. It was a paravane, containing 80 pounds (36kg) of TNT towed by an armoured electric cable. The warhead was fired automatically as soon as the submarine touched the paravane or towing cable, or by hand from the ship's bridge. It could be quickly deployed into the water, could be towed up to 25 knots (29mph), and recovery if unsuccessful was reasonably simple.

Mines were used extensively to defend coastlines, shipping, ports and naval bases across the world. The Germans laid mines in shipping lanes to sink merchant and naval vessels serving the Allies, this meant the destruction of vital supplies such as food as well as the lives of seamen. Indeed, psychologically they were powerful weapons, even if not present they raised the fear that they may be. Technically, mining was limited by treaty to areas within three miles of an enemy’s coastline, so as not to endanger neutral ships. However, both sides quickly came to ignore this agreement, and the North Sea became a place of immense danger. This also impacted the neutral countries of Norway and Sweden, which depended heavily on the North Sea for commerce, as the British North Sea coast and areas around ports in the Low Countries were particularly heavily mined. This meant that ships could not move freely. Methods for clearing were also vital to the Royal Navy whose freedom was being limited; mines severely restricted the free manoeuvring of forces. Paravanes were a new weapon in the battle to secure both military and civilian shipping, part of the reason why small vessels were normally used to drag them was because they were more manoeuvrable than larger boats. As one machine was pitted one against the other it was also a relatively safe way of clearing mines.

Mines were also used by the Allies for example; the Royal Navy and the United States Navy laid a huge minefield from the Orkneys to Norway to combat German submarines: from June to October 1918 almost 70,000 mines were laid spanning the North Sea's northern exits; after the war it took 82 ships five months to clear them.

Airship shed, steelwork

Airship shed, steelwork

by User Not Found | 11 Sep, 2014

772 comments

Leave a comment
  1. seo expert | May 23, 2018

    Ecommerce : Let our artificially intelligent content generator engine write your product descriptionsProduct descriptions are possibly one of the most undervalued search engine optimisation (SEO) tactics with most eCommerce websites either brushing off the task of auto generating descriptions or just writing thin product pages.Alongside informing about your products, product descriptions also offer the chance to product description writing

    * Target new long tail keywo+rds

    * Rank for synonyms and related words

    * Semantically connect with Google's Search Algorithm

  2. asimseo | May 23, 2018
    i read a lot of stuff and i found that the way of writing to clearifing that exactly want to say was very good so i am impressed and ilike to come again in future..  http://www.lainatheti.com/10000e
  3. seo expert | May 22, 2018
    Gangaur Realtech is a professionally overseen association having some expertise in land administrations where coordinated administrations are given by experts to its customers looking for expanded an incentive by owning, involving or putting resources into land.  diamond rings online india
  4. masod | May 21, 2018

    how to use uber app

    www.learningthought.com/how-to-use-the-uber-app/

  5. baajewala | May 21, 2018
     Be ready for Kulfi Kumar Bajewala Upcoming twistas amyra wants to be friends with kulfi . There is a new plan in amyra's mind to make kulfi's life a hell .
  6. Shakti | May 21, 2018
    Spoiler Alert for New TV serial on colors  Silsila Badalte rishton Ka spoiler this show is a story of extramarital affair .
  7. desiboyz | May 21, 2018
    New harayanvi song lyrics 2018 desi na bolya kar chori re lyrics mp3
  8. Nancy Willson | May 21, 2018
  9. asim seo | May 21, 2018

    It’s appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you few interesting things or advice. lån 10000

    Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article. I desire to read even more things about it! hp driver

  10. asimseo | May 21, 2018
    I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article. I am hoping the same best work from you in the future as well..  desertsafaridubaipackages.com
  11. seo expert | May 21, 2018
    Extremely pleasant and fascinating post. I was searching for this sort of data and appreciated perusing this one. Continue posting. Much obliged for sharing.  visit site
  12. chalsea | May 20, 2018
    This is such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free lån 30000 kr online
  13. Roy | May 20, 2018
    your post is very helpful and information rich. thanks to share this amazing post for us. jio ussd code
  14. hindi | May 20, 2018

    google lead me here good work and keep it up posting like this i know how hard it is but you have to do it.

    <a href="http://www.yoserials.org/watch-online/sony-tv/crime-patrol-season-4" >Crime Patrol Online</a>

  15. desi | May 20, 2018

    lovely work and great website now i could see why people coming here and promoting their  websites one of friend told me about this website so i thought why not me thanks for allowing us.

    Udaan

  16. best site to find homes for sale | May 19, 2018
    You get the typical humor involving Ferrell being kicked on for being a nerd but you also get a nice running gag of every hot woman wanting his body. best site to find homes for sale
  17. general spot | May 19, 2018
    Real estate businesses live not to mention die from their capability to add benefits. With certainly no added benefits, there are actually no business earnings. This for sure with any sort of business, but what makes real estate this great business and then a great funding, is the sheer number of ways you'll be able to value and take advantage of big business earnings.www.generalspot.us
  18. my shopping ideas | May 19, 2018
    We have all heard the argument for spending more now on quality to save money later. But what about the impact your purchase has on the world, shouldn't shopping ethically be part of the discussion too?www.myshoppingideas.us
  19. new services points | May 19, 2018
    Real estate option traders live together with die by just their capacity add valuation. With hardly any added valuation, there happen to be no proceeds. This well said with all business, but what makes real estate an extremely great business in addition to a great financial commitment, is numerous ways it is possible to value and profit from big proceeds.www.newservicespoints.com
  20. homes renovation | May 19, 2018
    Have you been thinking about remodeling your home? Keep in mind that you can often achieve your goal without a giant expense. Small improvements introduced in almost every room, including the exterior of the house can make all the difference.www.homesrenovation.us
  21. friendly realestate | May 19, 2018
    Real estate individuals live plus die by way of their capability add cost. With virtually no added cost, there will be no sales. This very well with every business, but why is real estate this sort of great business including a great choice, is the sheer numbers of ways it's fine to use value and cash in on big sales.www.friendlyrealestate.us
  22. latest fashionz | May 19, 2018
    You will find all forms and shapes of fashion blogs as the internet is full of them. It can talk about the advantage of wearing skinny jeans over boyfriend jeans or how pink takes the place of black plus all the extras. As you go online, you will get your fill of the latest in fashion trends via fashion blogs.www.latestfashionz.us
  23. business planning | May 19, 2018
    More than likely you understand the trend below... Commercial Home finance loan Financing works extremely well in nearly any sector for just about any commercial residence. Speak using your Business Finance Broker when you find yourself ready to get a Commercial Real estate property opportunity.www.businessplanning.us
  24. insurance advice | May 19, 2018
    Seen you are aware of the trend in this case... Commercial Home owner loan Financing are available in very nearly any market place for any variety of commercial building. Speak utilizing your Business Finance Broker remember when you are ready to invest in a Commercial Realty opportunity.www.bestfinanceideas.com
  25. health fitness together | May 19, 2018
    Health fitness tips and hints also suggest that vices could be stopped. Smoking predisposes people to vascular conditions along the lines of arteriosclerosis not to mention heart sicknesses. Alcohol consumption does not have to be got rid of but could be limited towards 30 jiggers a full day only. Alcohol even so has health rewards such for the reason that vasodilation. These are just some of what Health fitness tips and hints recommendwww.healthfitnesstogether.com
  26. travel and adventure | May 19, 2018
    Travel provides you with something to anticipate... to get ready for... to research for... and later to talk about. You brings home tales. Life could possibly get somewhat monotonous should you let this, particularly once you retire as well as your work existence ends. Anticipation may be worth at least around the journey itself and also the memories which follow the actual trip.www.travelandadventure.us
  27. loxury home | May 19, 2018
    Will you be thinking in relation to remodeling ones home? Remember you might achieve ones goal with not a giant purchase. Small upgrades introduced in every room, including the outer entrance can make each of the difference.www.loxuryhome.us
  28. health a fitness | May 19, 2018
    Health fitness strategies also recommend that vices should really be stopped. Smoking predisposes you to vascular conditions which includes arteriosclerosis and even heart problems. Alcohol consumption don't have to be done away with but should really be limited to help you 30 jiggers 24 hours only. Alcohol always has what are the benefits such simply because vasodilation. These are are just some of what Health fitness strategies recommendwww.healthafitness.us
  29. top stories us | May 19, 2018
    Travel will give you something to count on... to organize... to review for... and later to share. You will bring home experiences. Life might get somewhat monotonous when you let the item, particularly when you finally retire whilst your work lifetime ends. Anticipation might be priced at at least approximately the excursion itself along with the memories of which follow this trip.www.topstoriesus.us
  30. shopping world | May 19, 2018
    Most of us have heard the actual argument with regard to spending much more now upon quality in order to save money later on. But how about the effect your purchase is wearing the globe, shouldn't shopping ethically participate the dialogue too?www.shoppingworld.us
  31. online service centre | May 19, 2018
    The reality is that I am able to sit in this article today in addition to write what you long for to be in search of in business trends then a season from at this point, write identical sort connected with article having different suggestions for be mindful of as business in addition to society advance.www.onlineservicecentre.com
  32. latest fashion trends | May 19, 2018
    You'll discover all sorts and patterns of fashion blogs for the reason that internet is rich in them. It can look at the main benefit of wearing skeletal jeans in excess of boyfriend trousers or the way pink takes the site of black color plus each of the extras. Since you go on the net, you could possibly get your fill on the latest in fashion trends by using fashion blogs.www.latestfashiontrends.us
  33. experts business advice | May 19, 2018
    The truth is that I will sit right here today as well as write what you need to be searching for in business trends after which a 12 months from right now, write exactly the same sort associated with article along with different tips to keep close track of as business as well as society develop.www.expertsbusinessadvice.com
  34. about finance news | May 19, 2018
    Almost certainly you be aware of the trend listed here... Commercial Property finance loan Financing work extremely well in essentially any field for any specific commercial asset. Speak with the Business Finance Broker if you find yourself ready to purchase a Commercial Housing opportunity.www.aboutfinancenews.com
  35. health and food ideas | May 19, 2018
    Health fitness hints also counsel that vices has to be stopped. Smoking predisposes to vascular conditions which include arteriosclerosis together with heart medical conditions. Alcohol consumption should not be taken off but has to be limited that will 30 jiggers each and every day only. Alcohol also has health and fitness benefits such mainly because vasodilation. These are just some of what Health fitness hints recommendwww.healthandfoodideas.com
  36. equal law | May 19, 2018
    The laws associated with nature are simply as these people treat each and every specie (and not just man) along with equality. Inside a jungle, each and every specie will get its because of share associated with food, air as well as water that enable these phones live the dignified life without having to be dependent on every other creation. Character makes absolutely no distinction in between one specie, and also the other because all species would be the children from the same Lord.www.equallaw.us
  37. my business manager | May 19, 2018
    I know that you read the trend these... Commercial Loan Financing should be considered in just about any trade for some kind of commercial premises. Speak with each of your Business Finance Broker if you end up ready to get a Commercial The property market opportunity.www.mybusinessmanager.us
  38. the world news | May 19, 2018
    One can find all methods and figures of fashion blogs when the internet is complete with them. It can focus on the advantage of wearing slender jeans about boyfriend pants or the way in which pink takes the location of ebony plus most of the extras. As you may go on line, you will receive your fill within the latest in fashion trends by fashion blogs.www.theworldnews.us
  39. service experienced | May 19, 2018
    Most of us have heard the actual argument with regard to spending much more now upon quality in order to save money later on. But how about the effect your purchase is wearing the globe, shouldn't shopping ethically participate the dialogue too?www.serviceexperienced.com
  40. fashion label | May 19, 2018
    You will discover all types and designs of fashion blogs since the internet is filled with them. It can discuss the benefit of wearing thin jeans more than boyfriend denim jeans or exactly how pink takes the area of dark plus all of the extras. While you go on the internet, you can get your fill from the latest popular trends by way of fashion blogs.www.fashionlabel.us
  41. globe news center | May 19, 2018
    You can get all versions and sizes and shapes of fashion blogs given that the internet is rife with them. It can consider the benefit of wearing skinny jeans throughout boyfriend tight pants or skirts or the correct way pink takes spot of black colored plus the extras. Whilst you go web based, you get your fill belonging to the latest popular trends using fashion blogs.www.globenewscenter.us
  42. health i fitness | May 19, 2018
    Health fitness recommendations also suggest vices really should be stopped. Smoking predisposes want you to vascular conditions just like arteriosclerosis plus heart health conditions. Alcohol consumption needn't be wiped out but really should be limited so that you can 30 jiggers on a daily basis only. Alcohol continue to has rewards such when vasodilation. These are are just some of what Health fitness recommendations recommendwww.healthifitness.us
  43. service advisories | May 19, 2018
    There are actually all documents and forms and sizes of fashion blogs being the internet is heaped with them. It can go over the main advantage of wearing thin jeans finished boyfriend a pair of jeans or the simplest way pink takes site of charcoal plus the whole set of extras. Whenever you go over the internet, you could get your fill of this latest in fashion trends with the aid of fashion blogs.www.serviceadvisories.com
  44. events shopping | May 19, 2018
    Just about everyone has heard the particular argument regarding spending a lot more now about quality to save lots of money afterwards. But think about the influence your purchase has on the planet, shouldn't shopping ethically engage in the debate too?www.eventsshopping.us
  45. health care affect | May 19, 2018
    Health fitness points also propose that vices need to be stopped. Smoking predisposes that you vascular conditions like arteriosclerosis in addition to heart disorders. Alcohol consumption does not need to be taken out but need to be limited to help 30 jiggers daily only. Alcohol however has health advantages such seeing that vasodilation. These are just some of what Health fitness points recommendwww.healthcareaffect.us
  46. select home advisor | May 19, 2018
    Are you currently thinking regarding remodeling your own home? Remember that you could achieve your own goal with no giant cost. Small enhancements introduced in nearly every room, including the outside of the home can make all of the difference.www.selecthomeadvisor.us
  47. health care centre | May 19, 2018
    Health fitness guidelines also advice that vices must be stopped. Smoking predisposes you to definitely vascular conditions including arteriosclerosis along with heart ailments. Alcohol consumption don't need to be taken away but must be limited for you to 30 jiggers every day only. Alcohol even now has benefits such while vasodilation. These are are just some of what Health fitness guidelines recommendwww.healthcarecentre.us
  48. the services experience | May 19, 2018
    The truth is that We can sit these today and even write what you deserve to be hunting for in business trends and be able to a 365 days from at present, write the exact same sort in article through different ideas to keep abreast of as business and even society evolve.www.theservicesexperience.com
  49. house innovations | May 19, 2018
    Are you thinking concerning remodeling the home? Take into account that you can frequently achieve the goal with out a giant expenditure. Small advancements introduced in virtually every room, including the surface of your home can make every one of the difference.www.houseInnovations.us
  50. commercial sproperty | May 19, 2018
    Real estate traders live as well as die through their capability to add worth. With absolutely no added worth, there tend to be no earnings. This holds true with any kind of business, but why is real estate this type of great business along with a great expense, is the amount of ways you can include value and profit from big earnings.www.commercialsproperty.us

    Leave a comment

    The design drawings show how different forms of the weapon were developed and tested, allowing their suitability for a given situation to be tested: although normally from the bow the drawings also show starboard models.
    Airships

    Whilst the British army had favoured the production of aeroplanes over airships before the war, the threat posed by the use of airships by the Italian and German armies pushed the development of both rigid and non-rigid airships. The German Zeppelin and Schütte-Lanz were causing civilian and infrastructure casualties, bringing the war to mainland UK. They also worked as a remarkably strong propaganda tool and became a symbol of fear. The British needed to catch up; the Germans had invested heavily in training and design development and were far ahead of Britain in capability. The onslaught of German submarines against the Fleet also pushed airship construction along.

    In 1916 Short Brothers were awarded a contract to build two large rigid airships for the Admiralty (airships were originally conceived as naval escorts). Short chose a site at Cardington, about two miles south-east of Bedford. With its existing light engineering industry, potential workforce and gentle prevailing winds Bedford was the ideal location.

    The site covered 1086 acres and the total cost was just under £750,000 with up to 800 men involved in the construction at any one time. The site included three main parts: a shed for erecting and housing airships; workshops for manufacture and assembly of component parts; and a hydrogen generating and storage plant. There was also an alloy plant with rolling mills, foundry and furnaces along with blocks containing offices, canteens and garages. The site also boasted a model village for the workers, Shortstown.  

    The airship shed was built with a steel frame and corrugated iron sheeting and was the largest built in Britain at the time. It measured 700ft long by 235ft wide with a clear span of 180ft and height from floor to ridge of just over 144 ft. Huge windscreens 700ft long and 70ft high were built by the entrances to the shed to protect the airships as they were manoeuvred in and out.

    The first airships to be constructed were reproductions of the wooden girder Schutte-Lanz. However, post-war developments led to the design being superceded and the R-38 was constructed for special operations in the North Sea, capable of an altitude in excess of enemy aircraft. During the war over 225 airships were constructed. In particular, they were an effective submarine deterrent when the Navy performed reconnaissance, patrols, mine-hunting and convoy escorting duties. They were responsible for driving them underwater and out of harm’s way where, previously, they had been free to attack. Only once was a ship sunk by a submarine whilst being protected by an airship. Airships also aided the destruction of U-boats. The impact of this was huge, protected shipping could supply arms and goods both to the military and civilian population.

    Cardington was one of only a few airship sites to produce hydrogen for the ships by the water gas process, whereby steam was reduced to hydrogen by passing it over lumps of spongy iron at a high temperature. The iron oxide then needed to be reduced back to iron using blue water gas. However, as this process had to be continuous and lacked flexibility, and as it also required a large, complex and expensive fixed plant with skilled operators, it was impractical compared to the German system.

    The site was nationalised in April 1919, becoming known as the Royal Airship Works. In the 1920’s the wartime shed was extended and another shed added for construction of the R-101 airship. After the R-101 crashed in October 1930 airship construction was abandoned in Britain.  The sheds have since been used for weather balloons and development of parachutes. Airship design has recently returned to Cardington and the sheds are currently being used to build a hybrid airship, and soon to house the British Airship Museum. Started as an expediency of war, the site became central to British airship design.
    Airship shed, steelwork

    Airship shed, steelwork

    by User Not Found | 11 Sep, 2014

    772 comments

    Leave a comment
    1. seo expert | May 23, 2018

      Ecommerce : Let our artificially intelligent content generator engine write your product descriptionsProduct descriptions are possibly one of the most undervalued search engine optimisation (SEO) tactics with most eCommerce websites either brushing off the task of auto generating descriptions or just writing thin product pages.Alongside informing about your products, product descriptions also offer the chance to product description writing

      * Target new long tail keywo+rds

      * Rank for synonyms and related words

      * Semantically connect with Google's Search Algorithm

    2. asimseo | May 23, 2018
      i read a lot of stuff and i found that the way of writing to clearifing that exactly want to say was very good so i am impressed and ilike to come again in future..  http://www.lainatheti.com/10000e
    3. seo expert | May 22, 2018
      Gangaur Realtech is a professionally overseen association having some expertise in land administrations where coordinated administrations are given by experts to its customers looking for expanded an incentive by owning, involving or putting resources into land.  diamond rings online india
    4. masod | May 21, 2018

      how to use uber app

      www.learningthought.com/how-to-use-the-uber-app/

    5. baajewala | May 21, 2018
       Be ready for Kulfi Kumar Bajewala Upcoming twistas amyra wants to be friends with kulfi . There is a new plan in amyra's mind to make kulfi's life a hell .
    6. Shakti | May 21, 2018
      Spoiler Alert for New TV serial on colors  Silsila Badalte rishton Ka spoiler this show is a story of extramarital affair .
    7. desiboyz | May 21, 2018
      New harayanvi song lyrics 2018 desi na bolya kar chori re lyrics mp3
    8. Nancy Willson | May 21, 2018
    9. asim seo | May 21, 2018

      It’s appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you few interesting things or advice. lån 10000

      Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article. I desire to read even more things about it! hp driver

    10. asimseo | May 21, 2018
      I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article. I am hoping the same best work from you in the future as well..  desertsafaridubaipackages.com
    11. seo expert | May 21, 2018
      Extremely pleasant and fascinating post. I was searching for this sort of data and appreciated perusing this one. Continue posting. Much obliged for sharing.  visit site
    12. chalsea | May 20, 2018
      This is such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free lån 30000 kr online
    13. Roy | May 20, 2018
      your post is very helpful and information rich. thanks to share this amazing post for us. jio ussd code
    14. hindi | May 20, 2018

      google lead me here good work and keep it up posting like this i know how hard it is but you have to do it.

      <a href="http://www.yoserials.org/watch-online/sony-tv/crime-patrol-season-4" >Crime Patrol Online</a>

    15. desi | May 20, 2018

      lovely work and great website now i could see why people coming here and promoting their  websites one of friend told me about this website so i thought why not me thanks for allowing us.

      Udaan

    16. best site to find homes for sale | May 19, 2018
      You get the typical humor involving Ferrell being kicked on for being a nerd but you also get a nice running gag of every hot woman wanting his body. best site to find homes for sale
    17. general spot | May 19, 2018
      Real estate businesses live not to mention die from their capability to add benefits. With certainly no added benefits, there are actually no business earnings. This for sure with any sort of business, but what makes real estate this great business and then a great funding, is the sheer number of ways you'll be able to value and take advantage of big business earnings.www.generalspot.us
    18. my shopping ideas | May 19, 2018
      We have all heard the argument for spending more now on quality to save money later. But what about the impact your purchase has on the world, shouldn't shopping ethically be part of the discussion too?www.myshoppingideas.us
    19. new services points | May 19, 2018
      Real estate option traders live together with die by just their capacity add valuation. With hardly any added valuation, there happen to be no proceeds. This well said with all business, but what makes real estate an extremely great business in addition to a great financial commitment, is numerous ways it is possible to value and profit from big proceeds.www.newservicespoints.com
    20. homes renovation | May 19, 2018
      Have you been thinking about remodeling your home? Keep in mind that you can often achieve your goal without a giant expense. Small improvements introduced in almost every room, including the exterior of the house can make all the difference.www.homesrenovation.us
    21. friendly realestate | May 19, 2018
      Real estate individuals live plus die by way of their capability add cost. With virtually no added cost, there will be no sales. This very well with every business, but why is real estate this sort of great business including a great choice, is the sheer numbers of ways it's fine to use value and cash in on big sales.www.friendlyrealestate.us
    22. latest fashionz | May 19, 2018
      You will find all forms and shapes of fashion blogs as the internet is full of them. It can talk about the advantage of wearing skinny jeans over boyfriend jeans or how pink takes the place of black plus all the extras. As you go online, you will get your fill of the latest in fashion trends via fashion blogs.www.latestfashionz.us
    23. business planning | May 19, 2018
      More than likely you understand the trend below... Commercial Home finance loan Financing works extremely well in nearly any sector for just about any commercial residence. Speak using your Business Finance Broker when you find yourself ready to get a Commercial Real estate property opportunity.www.businessplanning.us
    24. insurance advice | May 19, 2018
      Seen you are aware of the trend in this case... Commercial Home owner loan Financing are available in very nearly any market place for any variety of commercial building. Speak utilizing your Business Finance Broker remember when you are ready to invest in a Commercial Realty opportunity.www.bestfinanceideas.com
    25. health fitness together | May 19, 2018
      Health fitness tips and hints also suggest that vices could be stopped. Smoking predisposes people to vascular conditions along the lines of arteriosclerosis not to mention heart sicknesses. Alcohol consumption does not have to be got rid of but could be limited towards 30 jiggers a full day only. Alcohol even so has health rewards such for the reason that vasodilation. These are just some of what Health fitness tips and hints recommendwww.healthfitnesstogether.com
    26. travel and adventure | May 19, 2018
      Travel provides you with something to anticipate... to get ready for... to research for... and later to talk about. You brings home tales. Life could possibly get somewhat monotonous should you let this, particularly once you retire as well as your work existence ends. Anticipation may be worth at least around the journey itself and also the memories which follow the actual trip.www.travelandadventure.us
    27. loxury home | May 19, 2018
      Will you be thinking in relation to remodeling ones home? Remember you might achieve ones goal with not a giant purchase. Small upgrades introduced in every room, including the outer entrance can make each of the difference.www.loxuryhome.us
    28. health a fitness | May 19, 2018
      Health fitness strategies also recommend that vices should really be stopped. Smoking predisposes you to vascular conditions which includes arteriosclerosis and even heart problems. Alcohol consumption don't have to be done away with but should really be limited to help you 30 jiggers 24 hours only. Alcohol always has what are the benefits such simply because vasodilation. These are are just some of what Health fitness strategies recommendwww.healthafitness.us
    29. top stories us | May 19, 2018
      Travel will give you something to count on... to organize... to review for... and later to share. You will bring home experiences. Life might get somewhat monotonous when you let the item, particularly when you finally retire whilst your work lifetime ends. Anticipation might be priced at at least approximately the excursion itself along with the memories of which follow this trip.www.topstoriesus.us
    30. shopping world | May 19, 2018
      Most of us have heard the actual argument with regard to spending much more now upon quality in order to save money later on. But how about the effect your purchase is wearing the globe, shouldn't shopping ethically participate the dialogue too?www.shoppingworld.us
    31. online service centre | May 19, 2018
      The reality is that I am able to sit in this article today in addition to write what you long for to be in search of in business trends then a season from at this point, write identical sort connected with article having different suggestions for be mindful of as business in addition to society advance.www.onlineservicecentre.com
    32. latest fashion trends | May 19, 2018
      You'll discover all sorts and patterns of fashion blogs for the reason that internet is rich in them. It can look at the main benefit of wearing skeletal jeans in excess of boyfriend trousers or the way pink takes the site of black color plus each of the extras. Since you go on the net, you could possibly get your fill on the latest in fashion trends by using fashion blogs.www.latestfashiontrends.us
    33. experts business advice | May 19, 2018
      The truth is that I will sit right here today as well as write what you need to be searching for in business trends after which a 12 months from right now, write exactly the same sort associated with article along with different tips to keep close track of as business as well as society develop.www.expertsbusinessadvice.com
    34. about finance news | May 19, 2018
      Almost certainly you be aware of the trend listed here... Commercial Property finance loan Financing work extremely well in essentially any field for any specific commercial asset. Speak with the Business Finance Broker if you find yourself ready to purchase a Commercial Housing opportunity.www.aboutfinancenews.com
    35. health and food ideas | May 19, 2018
      Health fitness hints also counsel that vices has to be stopped. Smoking predisposes to vascular conditions which include arteriosclerosis together with heart medical conditions. Alcohol consumption should not be taken off but has to be limited that will 30 jiggers each and every day only. Alcohol also has health and fitness benefits such mainly because vasodilation. These are just some of what Health fitness hints recommendwww.healthandfoodideas.com
    36. equal law | May 19, 2018
      The laws associated with nature are simply as these people treat each and every specie (and not just man) along with equality. Inside a jungle, each and every specie will get its because of share associated with food, air as well as water that enable these phones live the dignified life without having to be dependent on every other creation. Character makes absolutely no distinction in between one specie, and also the other because all species would be the children from the same Lord.www.equallaw.us
    37. my business manager | May 19, 2018
      I know that you read the trend these... Commercial Loan Financing should be considered in just about any trade for some kind of commercial premises. Speak with each of your Business Finance Broker if you end up ready to get a Commercial The property market opportunity.www.mybusinessmanager.us
    38. the world news | May 19, 2018
      One can find all methods and figures of fashion blogs when the internet is complete with them. It can focus on the advantage of wearing slender jeans about boyfriend pants or the way in which pink takes the location of ebony plus most of the extras. As you may go on line, you will receive your fill within the latest in fashion trends by fashion blogs.www.theworldnews.us
    39. service experienced | May 19, 2018
      Most of us have heard the actual argument with regard to spending much more now upon quality in order to save money later on. But how about the effect your purchase is wearing the globe, shouldn't shopping ethically participate the dialogue too?www.serviceexperienced.com
    40. fashion label | May 19, 2018
      You will discover all types and designs of fashion blogs since the internet is filled with them. It can discuss the benefit of wearing thin jeans more than boyfriend denim jeans or exactly how pink takes the area of dark plus all of the extras. While you go on the internet, you can get your fill from the latest popular trends by way of fashion blogs.www.fashionlabel.us
    41. globe news center | May 19, 2018
      You can get all versions and sizes and shapes of fashion blogs given that the internet is rife with them. It can consider the benefit of wearing skinny jeans throughout boyfriend tight pants or skirts or the correct way pink takes spot of black colored plus the extras. Whilst you go web based, you get your fill belonging to the latest popular trends using fashion blogs.www.globenewscenter.us
    42. health i fitness | May 19, 2018
      Health fitness recommendations also suggest vices really should be stopped. Smoking predisposes want you to vascular conditions just like arteriosclerosis plus heart health conditions. Alcohol consumption needn't be wiped out but really should be limited so that you can 30 jiggers on a daily basis only. Alcohol continue to has rewards such when vasodilation. These are are just some of what Health fitness recommendations recommendwww.healthifitness.us
    43. service advisories | May 19, 2018
      There are actually all documents and forms and sizes of fashion blogs being the internet is heaped with them. It can go over the main advantage of wearing thin jeans finished boyfriend a pair of jeans or the simplest way pink takes site of charcoal plus the whole set of extras. Whenever you go over the internet, you could get your fill of this latest in fashion trends with the aid of fashion blogs.www.serviceadvisories.com
    44. events shopping | May 19, 2018
      Just about everyone has heard the particular argument regarding spending a lot more now about quality to save lots of money afterwards. But think about the influence your purchase has on the planet, shouldn't shopping ethically engage in the debate too?www.eventsshopping.us
    45. health care affect | May 19, 2018
      Health fitness points also propose that vices need to be stopped. Smoking predisposes that you vascular conditions like arteriosclerosis in addition to heart disorders. Alcohol consumption does not need to be taken out but need to be limited to help 30 jiggers daily only. Alcohol however has health advantages such seeing that vasodilation. These are just some of what Health fitness points recommendwww.healthcareaffect.us
    46. select home advisor | May 19, 2018
      Are you currently thinking regarding remodeling your own home? Remember that you could achieve your own goal with no giant cost. Small enhancements introduced in nearly every room, including the outside of the home can make all of the difference.www.selecthomeadvisor.us
    47. health care centre | May 19, 2018
      Health fitness guidelines also advice that vices must be stopped. Smoking predisposes you to definitely vascular conditions including arteriosclerosis along with heart ailments. Alcohol consumption don't need to be taken away but must be limited for you to 30 jiggers every day only. Alcohol even now has benefits such while vasodilation. These are are just some of what Health fitness guidelines recommendwww.healthcarecentre.us
    48. the services experience | May 19, 2018
      The truth is that We can sit these today and even write what you deserve to be hunting for in business trends and be able to a 365 days from at present, write the exact same sort in article through different ideas to keep abreast of as business and even society evolve.www.theservicesexperience.com
    49. house innovations | May 19, 2018
      Are you thinking concerning remodeling the home? Take into account that you can frequently achieve the goal with out a giant expenditure. Small advancements introduced in virtually every room, including the surface of your home can make every one of the difference.www.houseInnovations.us
    50. commercial sproperty | May 19, 2018
      Real estate traders live as well as die through their capability to add worth. With absolutely no added worth, there tend to be no earnings. This holds true with any kind of business, but why is real estate this type of great business along with a great expense, is the amount of ways you can include value and profit from big earnings.www.commercialsproperty.us

      Leave a comment

      Images showing various stages of the construction of Cardington and the model village for workers.


      German U-boat film from the war, airships became a major weapon against submarines.

      Caterpillars and Tanks

      "It was a weapon designed for one simple task: crossing the killing zone between trench lines and breaking into enemy defenses [sic]." 1

      In 1904 David Roberts had patented a train track tractor, trials in 1907 led troops to nickname the track tractor the ‘caterpillar’. A tracked trailer was also designed, on which to load and move guns. The vehicle was devised for transportation; it was not intended as a weapon. It was the expediency of the war that led to further developments. It was the need to mount trenches and break the stalemate of troop/ground warfare that led people to make the association between a tracked vehicle and an armoured vehicle: these concepts would be combined to create the tank. Unlike the caterpillar, the tank had no sprung suspension and the track plates were an improved in order to deal with wartime conditions.

      The Ministry of Defence had rejected the idea of tracked vehicles and sold the patent to Holt Manufacturing Company in 1911: the army, therefore, had to purchase caterpillar tractors from The Caterpillar Tractor Company (as Holt had become) for transportation uses in the war.

      The tank was not the first armoured vehicle but previous incarnations required level surfaces on which to move. It became increasingly apparent that what was required was a self-propelled vehicle which could run on rough terrain. The urgency for such a weapon was due to the stalemate on the Western Front, where months and many lives were spent edging forwards and back. Trench warfare required a vechile which could overcome rough terraine. Accordingly, the tank was devised to survive artillery fire and move through barbed wire thus progressing into territory troops could not go on foot without severe reprocussions and loss of life. The innovation was eventually successful in attack, although during the First World War it was not realised that 20 years later the tank would be a major weapon of warfare.

      The combined efforts of the Admiralty and the War Office led to a prototype being trialled in 1915, it was affectionately known as 'Little Willie'. In early 1916 some changes led to the building of 'Big Willie', officially known as Mk 1 it was also called 'Mother' (to denote how it gave birth to all future tanks and associated developments).

      The tank was first used at the Battle of the Somme (1916), its impact was psychological rather militaristic; records show that of the 49 tanks which took part in the engagement, 17 broke down before they reached the front line, 9 more broke down at the front line and 5 got bogged down during the attack. However, its invulnerability to small arms fire and use for subduing machine gun fire and crushing barbed wire was established (this opened the way for an infantry attack to follow). However, as they were sent ahead of artillery barrages all assault surprise was lost. It took until 1917, at the battle of Cambrai, for the tank to show its effectiveness in battle. They were used in large numbers without the following artillery bombardment and the massed surprise assault achieved a spectacular breakthrough.

      By the end of the war, engine developments meant faster tanks were being manufactured. It seemed that the Allies, at last, had the answer to the problem of strategic penetration following a break-through. However, the war ended before this could be proven - the British Tank Corps had planned to use 10000 tanks in an independent mass assault. Somewhat ironically, it was for the German Panzer units of the Second World War to prove this.

      Airship shed, steelwork

      Airship shed, steelwork

      by User Not Found | 11 Sep, 2014

      772 comments

      Leave a comment
      1. seo expert | May 23, 2018

        Ecommerce : Let our artificially intelligent content generator engine write your product descriptionsProduct descriptions are possibly one of the most undervalued search engine optimisation (SEO) tactics with most eCommerce websites either brushing off the task of auto generating descriptions or just writing thin product pages.Alongside informing about your products, product descriptions also offer the chance to product description writing

        * Target new long tail keywo+rds

        * Rank for synonyms and related words

        * Semantically connect with Google's Search Algorithm

      2. asimseo | May 23, 2018
        i read a lot of stuff and i found that the way of writing to clearifing that exactly want to say was very good so i am impressed and ilike to come again in future..  http://www.lainatheti.com/10000e
      3. seo expert | May 22, 2018
        Gangaur Realtech is a professionally overseen association having some expertise in land administrations where coordinated administrations are given by experts to its customers looking for expanded an incentive by owning, involving or putting resources into land.  diamond rings online india
      4. masod | May 21, 2018

        how to use uber app

        www.learningthought.com/how-to-use-the-uber-app/

      5. baajewala | May 21, 2018
         Be ready for Kulfi Kumar Bajewala Upcoming twistas amyra wants to be friends with kulfi . There is a new plan in amyra's mind to make kulfi's life a hell .
      6. Shakti | May 21, 2018
        Spoiler Alert for New TV serial on colors  Silsila Badalte rishton Ka spoiler this show is a story of extramarital affair .
      7. desiboyz | May 21, 2018
        New harayanvi song lyrics 2018 desi na bolya kar chori re lyrics mp3
      8. Nancy Willson | May 21, 2018
      9. asim seo | May 21, 2018

        It’s appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you few interesting things or advice. lån 10000

        Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article. I desire to read even more things about it! hp driver

      10. asimseo | May 21, 2018
        I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article. I am hoping the same best work from you in the future as well..  desertsafaridubaipackages.com
      11. seo expert | May 21, 2018
        Extremely pleasant and fascinating post. I was searching for this sort of data and appreciated perusing this one. Continue posting. Much obliged for sharing.  visit site
      12. chalsea | May 20, 2018
        This is such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free lån 30000 kr online
      13. Roy | May 20, 2018
        your post is very helpful and information rich. thanks to share this amazing post for us. jio ussd code
      14. hindi | May 20, 2018

        google lead me here good work and keep it up posting like this i know how hard it is but you have to do it.

        <a href="http://www.yoserials.org/watch-online/sony-tv/crime-patrol-season-4" >Crime Patrol Online</a>

      15. desi | May 20, 2018

        lovely work and great website now i could see why people coming here and promoting their  websites one of friend told me about this website so i thought why not me thanks for allowing us.

        Udaan

      16. best site to find homes for sale | May 19, 2018
        You get the typical humor involving Ferrell being kicked on for being a nerd but you also get a nice running gag of every hot woman wanting his body. best site to find homes for sale
      17. general spot | May 19, 2018
        Real estate businesses live not to mention die from their capability to add benefits. With certainly no added benefits, there are actually no business earnings. This for sure with any sort of business, but what makes real estate this great business and then a great funding, is the sheer number of ways you'll be able to value and take advantage of big business earnings.www.generalspot.us
      18. my shopping ideas | May 19, 2018
        We have all heard the argument for spending more now on quality to save money later. But what about the impact your purchase has on the world, shouldn't shopping ethically be part of the discussion too?www.myshoppingideas.us
      19. new services points | May 19, 2018
        Real estate option traders live together with die by just their capacity add valuation. With hardly any added valuation, there happen to be no proceeds. This well said with all business, but what makes real estate an extremely great business in addition to a great financial commitment, is numerous ways it is possible to value and profit from big proceeds.www.newservicespoints.com
      20. homes renovation | May 19, 2018
        Have you been thinking about remodeling your home? Keep in mind that you can often achieve your goal without a giant expense. Small improvements introduced in almost every room, including the exterior of the house can make all the difference.www.homesrenovation.us
      21. friendly realestate | May 19, 2018
        Real estate individuals live plus die by way of their capability add cost. With virtually no added cost, there will be no sales. This very well with every business, but why is real estate this sort of great business including a great choice, is the sheer numbers of ways it's fine to use value and cash in on big sales.www.friendlyrealestate.us
      22. latest fashionz | May 19, 2018
        You will find all forms and shapes of fashion blogs as the internet is full of them. It can talk about the advantage of wearing skinny jeans over boyfriend jeans or how pink takes the place of black plus all the extras. As you go online, you will get your fill of the latest in fashion trends via fashion blogs.www.latestfashionz.us
      23. business planning | May 19, 2018
        More than likely you understand the trend below... Commercial Home finance loan Financing works extremely well in nearly any sector for just about any commercial residence. Speak using your Business Finance Broker when you find yourself ready to get a Commercial Real estate property opportunity.www.businessplanning.us
      24. insurance advice | May 19, 2018
        Seen you are aware of the trend in this case... Commercial Home owner loan Financing are available in very nearly any market place for any variety of commercial building. Speak utilizing your Business Finance Broker remember when you are ready to invest in a Commercial Realty opportunity.www.bestfinanceideas.com
      25. health fitness together | May 19, 2018
        Health fitness tips and hints also suggest that vices could be stopped. Smoking predisposes people to vascular conditions along the lines of arteriosclerosis not to mention heart sicknesses. Alcohol consumption does not have to be got rid of but could be limited towards 30 jiggers a full day only. Alcohol even so has health rewards such for the reason that vasodilation. These are just some of what Health fitness tips and hints recommendwww.healthfitnesstogether.com
      26. travel and adventure | May 19, 2018
        Travel provides you with something to anticipate... to get ready for... to research for... and later to talk about. You brings home tales. Life could possibly get somewhat monotonous should you let this, particularly once you retire as well as your work existence ends. Anticipation may be worth at least around the journey itself and also the memories which follow the actual trip.www.travelandadventure.us
      27. loxury home | May 19, 2018
        Will you be thinking in relation to remodeling ones home? Remember you might achieve ones goal with not a giant purchase. Small upgrades introduced in every room, including the outer entrance can make each of the difference.www.loxuryhome.us
      28. health a fitness | May 19, 2018
        Health fitness strategies also recommend that vices should really be stopped. Smoking predisposes you to vascular conditions which includes arteriosclerosis and even heart problems. Alcohol consumption don't have to be done away with but should really be limited to help you 30 jiggers 24 hours only. Alcohol always has what are the benefits such simply because vasodilation. These are are just some of what Health fitness strategies recommendwww.healthafitness.us
      29. top stories us | May 19, 2018
        Travel will give you something to count on... to organize... to review for... and later to share. You will bring home experiences. Life might get somewhat monotonous when you let the item, particularly when you finally retire whilst your work lifetime ends. Anticipation might be priced at at least approximately the excursion itself along with the memories of which follow this trip.www.topstoriesus.us
      30. shopping world | May 19, 2018
        Most of us have heard the actual argument with regard to spending much more now upon quality in order to save money later on. But how about the effect your purchase is wearing the globe, shouldn't shopping ethically participate the dialogue too?www.shoppingworld.us
      31. online service centre | May 19, 2018
        The reality is that I am able to sit in this article today in addition to write what you long for to be in search of in business trends then a season from at this point, write identical sort connected with article having different suggestions for be mindful of as business in addition to society advance.www.onlineservicecentre.com
      32. latest fashion trends | May 19, 2018
        You'll discover all sorts and patterns of fashion blogs for the reason that internet is rich in them. It can look at the main benefit of wearing skeletal jeans in excess of boyfriend trousers or the way pink takes the site of black color plus each of the extras. Since you go on the net, you could possibly get your fill on the latest in fashion trends by using fashion blogs.www.latestfashiontrends.us
      33. experts business advice | May 19, 2018
        The truth is that I will sit right here today as well as write what you need to be searching for in business trends after which a 12 months from right now, write exactly the same sort associated with article along with different tips to keep close track of as business as well as society develop.www.expertsbusinessadvice.com
      34. about finance news | May 19, 2018
        Almost certainly you be aware of the trend listed here... Commercial Property finance loan Financing work extremely well in essentially any field for any specific commercial asset. Speak with the Business Finance Broker if you find yourself ready to purchase a Commercial Housing opportunity.www.aboutfinancenews.com
      35. health and food ideas | May 19, 2018
        Health fitness hints also counsel that vices has to be stopped. Smoking predisposes to vascular conditions which include arteriosclerosis together with heart medical conditions. Alcohol consumption should not be taken off but has to be limited that will 30 jiggers each and every day only. Alcohol also has health and fitness benefits such mainly because vasodilation. These are just some of what Health fitness hints recommendwww.healthandfoodideas.com
      36. equal law | May 19, 2018
        The laws associated with nature are simply as these people treat each and every specie (and not just man) along with equality. Inside a jungle, each and every specie will get its because of share associated with food, air as well as water that enable these phones live the dignified life without having to be dependent on every other creation. Character makes absolutely no distinction in between one specie, and also the other because all species would be the children from the same Lord.www.equallaw.us
      37. my business manager | May 19, 2018
        I know that you read the trend these... Commercial Loan Financing should be considered in just about any trade for some kind of commercial premises. Speak with each of your Business Finance Broker if you end up ready to get a Commercial The property market opportunity.www.mybusinessmanager.us
      38. the world news | May 19, 2018
        One can find all methods and figures of fashion blogs when the internet is complete with them. It can focus on the advantage of wearing slender jeans about boyfriend pants or the way in which pink takes the location of ebony plus most of the extras. As you may go on line, you will receive your fill within the latest in fashion trends by fashion blogs.www.theworldnews.us
      39. service experienced | May 19, 2018
        Most of us have heard the actual argument with regard to spending much more now upon quality in order to save money later on. But how about the effect your purchase is wearing the globe, shouldn't shopping ethically participate the dialogue too?www.serviceexperienced.com
      40. fashion label | May 19, 2018
        You will discover all types and designs of fashion blogs since the internet is filled with them. It can discuss the benefit of wearing thin jeans more than boyfriend denim jeans or exactly how pink takes the area of dark plus all of the extras. While you go on the internet, you can get your fill from the latest popular trends by way of fashion blogs.www.fashionlabel.us
      41. globe news center | May 19, 2018
        You can get all versions and sizes and shapes of fashion blogs given that the internet is rife with them. It can consider the benefit of wearing skinny jeans throughout boyfriend tight pants or skirts or the correct way pink takes spot of black colored plus the extras. Whilst you go web based, you get your fill belonging to the latest popular trends using fashion blogs.www.globenewscenter.us
      42. health i fitness | May 19, 2018
        Health fitness recommendations also suggest vices really should be stopped. Smoking predisposes want you to vascular conditions just like arteriosclerosis plus heart health conditions. Alcohol consumption needn't be wiped out but really should be limited so that you can 30 jiggers on a daily basis only. Alcohol continue to has rewards such when vasodilation. These are are just some of what Health fitness recommendations recommendwww.healthifitness.us
      43. service advisories | May 19, 2018
        There are actually all documents and forms and sizes of fashion blogs being the internet is heaped with them. It can go over the main advantage of wearing thin jeans finished boyfriend a pair of jeans or the simplest way pink takes site of charcoal plus the whole set of extras. Whenever you go over the internet, you could get your fill of this latest in fashion trends with the aid of fashion blogs.www.serviceadvisories.com
      44. events shopping | May 19, 2018
        Just about everyone has heard the particular argument regarding spending a lot more now about quality to save lots of money afterwards. But think about the influence your purchase has on the planet, shouldn't shopping ethically engage in the debate too?www.eventsshopping.us
      45. health care affect | May 19, 2018
        Health fitness points also propose that vices need to be stopped. Smoking predisposes that you vascular conditions like arteriosclerosis in addition to heart disorders. Alcohol consumption does not need to be taken out but need to be limited to help 30 jiggers daily only. Alcohol however has health advantages such seeing that vasodilation. These are just some of what Health fitness points recommendwww.healthcareaffect.us
      46. select home advisor | May 19, 2018
        Are you currently thinking regarding remodeling your own home? Remember that you could achieve your own goal with no giant cost. Small enhancements introduced in nearly every room, including the outside of the home can make all of the difference.www.selecthomeadvisor.us
      47. health care centre | May 19, 2018
        Health fitness guidelines also advice that vices must be stopped. Smoking predisposes you to definitely vascular conditions including arteriosclerosis along with heart ailments. Alcohol consumption don't need to be taken away but must be limited for you to 30 jiggers every day only. Alcohol even now has benefits such while vasodilation. These are are just some of what Health fitness guidelines recommendwww.healthcarecentre.us
      48. the services experience | May 19, 2018
        The truth is that We can sit these today and even write what you deserve to be hunting for in business trends and be able to a 365 days from at present, write the exact same sort in article through different ideas to keep abreast of as business and even society evolve.www.theservicesexperience.com
      49. house innovations | May 19, 2018
        Are you thinking concerning remodeling the home? Take into account that you can frequently achieve the goal with out a giant expenditure. Small advancements introduced in virtually every room, including the surface of your home can make every one of the difference.www.houseInnovations.us
      50. commercial sproperty | May 19, 2018
        Real estate traders live as well as die through their capability to add worth. With absolutely no added worth, there tend to be no earnings. This holds true with any kind of business, but why is real estate this type of great business along with a great expense, is the amount of ways you can include value and profit from big earnings.www.commercialsproperty.us

        Leave a comment

        The photographs show a range of armoured vehicles used in wartime, primarily as transporters, as well as a prototype tank. To read more on the design and development of the tanks during and since the war click here.
        Aircraft

        Flying was only 11 years old in 1914. Originally planes were not used for defence but for recognisance: photographing positions/battle sites and as radio cover for troop movements during battle. At first the weight of weapons and their interference with the propeller meant that they were not armed with a forward firing machine gun, meaning they could not be used as a weapon. The invention of the interrupter gear (a synchronization device which meant bullets did not shoot the propeller) in 1915 was a major engineering development which made aerial warfare possible for the first time. It also signifies the technological battle raging between the two sides. Roland Garros, a French army aviator, had a Morane-Saulnier Type L with gun fitted: he shot down the first ever aircraft (German) with a tractor propeller on 1 April 1915; this was followed by two more successful 'kills'. On the 18th he was captured by the Germans but he failed to destroy his aircraft completely before being taken prisoner: most significantly, the gun and armoured propeller remained intact. Apparently this led engineer Anthony Fokker to design the improved interrupter gear system; in truth he had been working on it for at least six months but it is plausible the discovery and study of a working interrupter advanced his work. It was now the Allied planes that were in danger, such was the impact of his invention that the ensuing ascendancy in the air of the German's became known as the Fokker's Scrouge.

        In fact the work on Fokker's system had been going for at least six months before Garros' aircraft fell into their hands. With the advent of the interrupter gear the tables were turned on the Allies, with Fokker's planes shooting down many Allied aircraft, leading to what became known as the Fokker Scourge. The Allies were essential defenceless. Technology caught up and by the summer of 1916 the Allies also had forward firing machine guns with new lighter/more agile planes. Their recognisance role remained vital however for example, playing a key role at the Battle of the Somme.

        Aircraft was also used against the German U-boats, taking off initially from ships. In 1916 the Blackburn Aircraft Company designed and built two prototypes of an anti-submarine floatplane, the Blackburn General Purpose. On their own initiative Blackburn then developed a landplane version, the Blackburn R.T.1 Kangaroo (Reconnaissance Torpedo Type 1). Test results in early 1918 were disappointing, with the rear fuselage being prone to twisting and the aircraft suffering control problems, the order was cut from 50 to 20. However, a more powerful Rolls-Royce Falcon III engine replaced the 250 hp (120 kW) Rolls-Royce Falcon II that had been used. The Kangaroo entered service with No. 246 Squadron RAF and saw six months of operations, sinking one U-boat and damaging another four. After the war they were converted for civilian use, being used as a regular passenger service between Roundhay Park (Leeds) and Hounslow Heath, then in 1920 onto to Amsterdam. On 21 November 1919, one Kangaroo (G-EAOW) took off from Hounslow Heath in an attempt to win the Australian government prize of AUD 10,000 for the first Australian airman to fly a British aircraft from the UK to Australia within 30 consecutive days. The Kangaroo was forced to make an emergency landing at Suda Bay, Crete with a suspected sabotaged engine, and the aircraft was abandoned there.

        Airship shed, steelwork

        Airship shed, steelwork

        by User Not Found | 11 Sep, 2014

        772 comments

        Leave a comment
        1. seo expert | May 23, 2018

          Ecommerce : Let our artificially intelligent content generator engine write your product descriptionsProduct descriptions are possibly one of the most undervalued search engine optimisation (SEO) tactics with most eCommerce websites either brushing off the task of auto generating descriptions or just writing thin product pages.Alongside informing about your products, product descriptions also offer the chance to product description writing

          * Target new long tail keywo+rds

          * Rank for synonyms and related words

          * Semantically connect with Google's Search Algorithm

        2. asimseo | May 23, 2018
          i read a lot of stuff and i found that the way of writing to clearifing that exactly want to say was very good so i am impressed and ilike to come again in future..  http://www.lainatheti.com/10000e
        3. seo expert | May 22, 2018
          Gangaur Realtech is a professionally overseen association having some expertise in land administrations where coordinated administrations are given by experts to its customers looking for expanded an incentive by owning, involving or putting resources into land.  diamond rings online india
        4. masod | May 21, 2018

          how to use uber app

          www.learningthought.com/how-to-use-the-uber-app/

        5. baajewala | May 21, 2018
           Be ready for Kulfi Kumar Bajewala Upcoming twistas amyra wants to be friends with kulfi . There is a new plan in amyra's mind to make kulfi's life a hell .
        6. Shakti | May 21, 2018
          Spoiler Alert for New TV serial on colors  Silsila Badalte rishton Ka spoiler this show is a story of extramarital affair .
        7. desiboyz | May 21, 2018
          New harayanvi song lyrics 2018 desi na bolya kar chori re lyrics mp3
        8. Nancy Willson | May 21, 2018
        9. asim seo | May 21, 2018

          It’s appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you few interesting things or advice. lån 10000

          Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article. I desire to read even more things about it! hp driver

        10. asimseo | May 21, 2018
          I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article. I am hoping the same best work from you in the future as well..  desertsafaridubaipackages.com
        11. seo expert | May 21, 2018
          Extremely pleasant and fascinating post. I was searching for this sort of data and appreciated perusing this one. Continue posting. Much obliged for sharing.  visit site
        12. chalsea | May 20, 2018
          This is such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free lån 30000 kr online
        13. Roy | May 20, 2018
          your post is very helpful and information rich. thanks to share this amazing post for us. jio ussd code
        14. hindi | May 20, 2018

          google lead me here good work and keep it up posting like this i know how hard it is but you have to do it.

          <a href="http://www.yoserials.org/watch-online/sony-tv/crime-patrol-season-4" >Crime Patrol Online</a>

        15. desi | May 20, 2018

          lovely work and great website now i could see why people coming here and promoting their  websites one of friend told me about this website so i thought why not me thanks for allowing us.

          Udaan

        16. best site to find homes for sale | May 19, 2018
          You get the typical humor involving Ferrell being kicked on for being a nerd but you also get a nice running gag of every hot woman wanting his body. best site to find homes for sale
        17. general spot | May 19, 2018
          Real estate businesses live not to mention die from their capability to add benefits. With certainly no added benefits, there are actually no business earnings. This for sure with any sort of business, but what makes real estate this great business and then a great funding, is the sheer number of ways you'll be able to value and take advantage of big business earnings.www.generalspot.us
        18. my shopping ideas | May 19, 2018
          We have all heard the argument for spending more now on quality to save money later. But what about the impact your purchase has on the world, shouldn't shopping ethically be part of the discussion too?www.myshoppingideas.us
        19. new services points | May 19, 2018
          Real estate option traders live together with die by just their capacity add valuation. With hardly any added valuation, there happen to be no proceeds. This well said with all business, but what makes real estate an extremely great business in addition to a great financial commitment, is numerous ways it is possible to value and profit from big proceeds.www.newservicespoints.com
        20. homes renovation | May 19, 2018
          Have you been thinking about remodeling your home? Keep in mind that you can often achieve your goal without a giant expense. Small improvements introduced in almost every room, including the exterior of the house can make all the difference.www.homesrenovation.us
        21. friendly realestate | May 19, 2018
          Real estate individuals live plus die by way of their capability add cost. With virtually no added cost, there will be no sales. This very well with every business, but why is real estate this sort of great business including a great choice, is the sheer numbers of ways it's fine to use value and cash in on big sales.www.friendlyrealestate.us
        22. latest fashionz | May 19, 2018
          You will find all forms and shapes of fashion blogs as the internet is full of them. It can talk about the advantage of wearing skinny jeans over boyfriend jeans or how pink takes the place of black plus all the extras. As you go online, you will get your fill of the latest in fashion trends via fashion blogs.www.latestfashionz.us
        23. business planning | May 19, 2018
          More than likely you understand the trend below... Commercial Home finance loan Financing works extremely well in nearly any sector for just about any commercial residence. Speak using your Business Finance Broker when you find yourself ready to get a Commercial Real estate property opportunity.www.businessplanning.us
        24. insurance advice | May 19, 2018
          Seen you are aware of the trend in this case... Commercial Home owner loan Financing are available in very nearly any market place for any variety of commercial building. Speak utilizing your Business Finance Broker remember when you are ready to invest in a Commercial Realty opportunity.www.bestfinanceideas.com
        25. health fitness together | May 19, 2018
          Health fitness tips and hints also suggest that vices could be stopped. Smoking predisposes people to vascular conditions along the lines of arteriosclerosis not to mention heart sicknesses. Alcohol consumption does not have to be got rid of but could be limited towards 30 jiggers a full day only. Alcohol even so has health rewards such for the reason that vasodilation. These are just some of what Health fitness tips and hints recommendwww.healthfitnesstogether.com
        26. travel and adventure | May 19, 2018
          Travel provides you with something to anticipate... to get ready for... to research for... and later to talk about. You brings home tales. Life could possibly get somewhat monotonous should you let this, particularly once you retire as well as your work existence ends. Anticipation may be worth at least around the journey itself and also the memories which follow the actual trip.www.travelandadventure.us
        27. loxury home | May 19, 2018
          Will you be thinking in relation to remodeling ones home? Remember you might achieve ones goal with not a giant purchase. Small upgrades introduced in every room, including the outer entrance can make each of the difference.www.loxuryhome.us
        28. health a fitness | May 19, 2018
          Health fitness strategies also recommend that vices should really be stopped. Smoking predisposes you to vascular conditions which includes arteriosclerosis and even heart problems. Alcohol consumption don't have to be done away with but should really be limited to help you 30 jiggers 24 hours only. Alcohol always has what are the benefits such simply because vasodilation. These are are just some of what Health fitness strategies recommendwww.healthafitness.us
        29. top stories us | May 19, 2018
          Travel will give you something to count on... to organize... to review for... and later to share. You will bring home experiences. Life might get somewhat monotonous when you let the item, particularly when you finally retire whilst your work lifetime ends. Anticipation might be priced at at least approximately the excursion itself along with the memories of which follow this trip.www.topstoriesus.us
        30. shopping world | May 19, 2018
          Most of us have heard the actual argument with regard to spending much more now upon quality in order to save money later on. But how about the effect your purchase is wearing the globe, shouldn't shopping ethically participate the dialogue too?www.shoppingworld.us
        31. online service centre | May 19, 2018
          The reality is that I am able to sit in this article today in addition to write what you long for to be in search of in business trends then a season from at this point, write identical sort connected with article having different suggestions for be mindful of as business in addition to society advance.www.onlineservicecentre.com
        32. latest fashion trends | May 19, 2018
          You'll discover all sorts and patterns of fashion blogs for the reason that internet is rich in them. It can look at the main benefit of wearing skeletal jeans in excess of boyfriend trousers or the way pink takes the site of black color plus each of the extras. Since you go on the net, you could possibly get your fill on the latest in fashion trends by using fashion blogs.www.latestfashiontrends.us
        33. experts business advice | May 19, 2018
          The truth is that I will sit right here today as well as write what you need to be searching for in business trends after which a 12 months from right now, write exactly the same sort associated with article along with different tips to keep close track of as business as well as society develop.www.expertsbusinessadvice.com
        34. about finance news | May 19, 2018
          Almost certainly you be aware of the trend listed here... Commercial Property finance loan Financing work extremely well in essentially any field for any specific commercial asset. Speak with the Business Finance Broker if you find yourself ready to purchase a Commercial Housing opportunity.www.aboutfinancenews.com
        35. health and food ideas | May 19, 2018
          Health fitness hints also counsel that vices has to be stopped. Smoking predisposes to vascular conditions which include arteriosclerosis together with heart medical conditions. Alcohol consumption should not be taken off but has to be limited that will 30 jiggers each and every day only. Alcohol also has health and fitness benefits such mainly because vasodilation. These are just some of what Health fitness hints recommendwww.healthandfoodideas.com
        36. equal law | May 19, 2018
          The laws associated with nature are simply as these people treat each and every specie (and not just man) along with equality. Inside a jungle, each and every specie will get its because of share associated with food, air as well as water that enable these phones live the dignified life without having to be dependent on every other creation. Character makes absolutely no distinction in between one specie, and also the other because all species would be the children from the same Lord.www.equallaw.us
        37. my business manager | May 19, 2018
          I know that you read the trend these... Commercial Loan Financing should be considered in just about any trade for some kind of commercial premises. Speak with each of your Business Finance Broker if you end up ready to get a Commercial The property market opportunity.www.mybusinessmanager.us
        38. the world news | May 19, 2018
          One can find all methods and figures of fashion blogs when the internet is complete with them. It can focus on the advantage of wearing slender jeans about boyfriend pants or the way in which pink takes the location of ebony plus most of the extras. As you may go on line, you will receive your fill within the latest in fashion trends by fashion blogs.www.theworldnews.us
        39. service experienced | May 19, 2018
          Most of us have heard the actual argument with regard to spending much more now upon quality in order to save money later on. But how about the effect your purchase is wearing the globe, shouldn't shopping ethically participate the dialogue too?www.serviceexperienced.com
        40. fashion label | May 19, 2018
          You will discover all types and designs of fashion blogs since the internet is filled with them. It can discuss the benefit of wearing thin jeans more than boyfriend denim jeans or exactly how pink takes the area of dark plus all of the extras. While you go on the internet, you can get your fill from the latest popular trends by way of fashion blogs.www.fashionlabel.us
        41. globe news center | May 19, 2018
          You can get all versions and sizes and shapes of fashion blogs given that the internet is rife with them. It can consider the benefit of wearing skinny jeans throughout boyfriend tight pants or skirts or the correct way pink takes spot of black colored plus the extras. Whilst you go web based, you get your fill belonging to the latest popular trends using fashion blogs.www.globenewscenter.us
        42. health i fitness | May 19, 2018
          Health fitness recommendations also suggest vices really should be stopped. Smoking predisposes want you to vascular conditions just like arteriosclerosis plus heart health conditions. Alcohol consumption needn't be wiped out but really should be limited so that you can 30 jiggers on a daily basis only. Alcohol continue to has rewards such when vasodilation. These are are just some of what Health fitness recommendations recommendwww.healthifitness.us
        43. service advisories | May 19, 2018
          There are actually all documents and forms and sizes of fashion blogs being the internet is heaped with them. It can go over the main advantage of wearing thin jeans finished boyfriend a pair of jeans or the simplest way pink takes site of charcoal plus the whole set of extras. Whenever you go over the internet, you could get your fill of this latest in fashion trends with the aid of fashion blogs.www.serviceadvisories.com
        44. events shopping | May 19, 2018
          Just about everyone has heard the particular argument regarding spending a lot more now about quality to save lots of money afterwards. But think about the influence your purchase has on the planet, shouldn't shopping ethically engage in the debate too?www.eventsshopping.us
        45. health care affect | May 19, 2018
          Health fitness points also propose that vices need to be stopped. Smoking predisposes that you vascular conditions like arteriosclerosis in addition to heart disorders. Alcohol consumption does not need to be taken out but need to be limited to help 30 jiggers daily only. Alcohol however has health advantages such seeing that vasodilation. These are just some of what Health fitness points recommendwww.healthcareaffect.us
        46. select home advisor | May 19, 2018
          Are you currently thinking regarding remodeling your own home? Remember that you could achieve your own goal with no giant cost. Small enhancements introduced in nearly every room, including the outside of the home can make all of the difference.www.selecthomeadvisor.us
        47. health care centre | May 19, 2018
          Health fitness guidelines also advice that vices must be stopped. Smoking predisposes you to definitely vascular conditions including arteriosclerosis along with heart ailments. Alcohol consumption don't need to be taken away but must be limited for you to 30 jiggers every day only. Alcohol even now has benefits such while vasodilation. These are are just some of what Health fitness guidelines recommendwww.healthcarecentre.us
        48. the services experience | May 19, 2018
          The truth is that We can sit these today and even write what you deserve to be hunting for in business trends and be able to a 365 days from at present, write the exact same sort in article through different ideas to keep abreast of as business and even society evolve.www.theservicesexperience.com
        49. house innovations | May 19, 2018
          Are you thinking concerning remodeling the home? Take into account that you can frequently achieve the goal with out a giant expenditure. Small advancements introduced in virtually every room, including the surface of your home can make every one of the difference.www.houseInnovations.us
        50. commercial sproperty | May 19, 2018
          Real estate traders live as well as die through their capability to add worth. With absolutely no added worth, there tend to be no earnings. This holds true with any kind of business, but why is real estate this type of great business along with a great expense, is the amount of ways you can include value and profit from big earnings.www.commercialsproperty.us

          Leave a comment

          Design drawings for Whitworth-Armstrong Vickers machine gun mount. See more on the Resources page.

          Anthony Fokker with his plane
          Fokker with the plane he obtained his flying license in, 1911. He is chatting to pilot Nyenhoff, who flew it in an air show in 1936.

          Blackburn Kangaroo
          Blackburn Kangaroo, preparing to fly in Australia in 1919.

          Credits/footnotes:

          ​Williamson Murray, "Armoured Warfare: The British, French, and German Experiences," in Murray, Williamson; Millet, Allan R, eds. (1996). Military Innovation in the Interwar Period. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-521-63760-0.

          Images:

          Paravane design drawings; The Mk I tank ‘Big Willie’; Aircraft images; and machine gun mount design drawings/papers.  IMechE Archive.

          Photographs of  track tractors being used in South Africa, ICE Archive.