Many engineers were not allowed to sign up to the forces as they were deemed indispensable and instead they supported the war from home. The increased need for munitions and related items meant a new workforce was needed, both to meet demand and because many men had gone to war; women formed the core of this.

Home Forces

Harry Stephenson Ellis served with No. 3 Signals Section of the Durham Royal Engineers Volunteer Home Force. However, he had originally requested foreign service. Ellis wrote to Lieutenant Colonel Walsh to request leave from his position as Borough Electrical Engineer in South Shields to join the Royal Engineers. The request was refused as Ellis’s work as a skilled electrical engineer at home was recognised as being of more use to the war effort than joining the ranks of the Royal Engineers:

“…I have come to the conclusion that you really have absolutely no business or right to leave the important post which you are now holding".

To dissuade him from joining the Royal Engineers in France, Walsh then suggested he enrol in the Volunteer Corps. Ellis did not give up easily and applied in 1916 for a commission in the Royal Flying Corps. Although not yet on active service, Major General Shaw (Home Forces) described in May 1916 how Ellis’s method of painting street lamps was favourably received by the Field Marshall; he sent drawings on how to minimise white light on the ground produced by arc lamps. By April 1917 Ellis had finally offered his services as a National Service Volunteer:

“Your offer has been recorded, but in view of the nature of your occupation it can only be considered after dealing with the offers of men engaged in work of less essential importance.”

Ellis did not give up; such was his patriotism and desire to enlist, even though he now accepted this would be on the home front and November 1917 Ellis had succeeded to join the war effort. He was accepted as a Lieutenant in the Volunteer Force, County of Durham Volunteer Engineers, exactly two years after his initial request. He was the commanding officer for No.3 Signals Section of the Durham Royal Engineers Volunteer Corps. In May 1919, he received orders for the disbandment of the Volunteer Force and the re-opening of the Territorial Force. He was in command of checking all remaining stores and the accommodation at the Drill Hall.

“I am commanded by the Army Council to inform you that in recognition of your services as an officer of the Volunteer Force in the Durham Royal Engineers (V.) you have been granted the Honorary Rank of Lieutenant…I am to take this opportunity of conveying the thanks of the Army council for your services to the Country during the Great War, and for the excellent work you have done.”

Ellis left Durham in 1919 to take up employment as Borough Electrical Engineer in Southampton. His story highlights how engineers who remained on the home front, continuing their work, helped the war effort. Despite pressure to fight many had to remain in post at home as their occupation was so skilled it could not be replicated by another. It was also important that their expertise was used to remain ahead of the enemy and not to give them the advantage in warfare.

NAEST 155 03 114 Photograph of Lt Ellis
Photograph of Ellis in the Royal Engineer Signals. Read his biography in Resources.

NAEST 155 03 06 Volunteer Force certificate
Printed certificate for appointment to Volunteer Force.

Munitions

War brought with it a huge increase in demand for munitions, at the same time the workforce was reduced by men signing up. By 1918, almost a million women were employed in munitions and engineering works, with 80% of shells being made by women by 1917: in the decade before only 212,000 had been employed in these areas. A government policy was introduced to ensure their training, ‘Dilution’.

Olive Monkhouse, Chief Woman Dilution Officer, Ministry of Munitions gave a paper on this at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, a debate followed. It was accepted that when properly trained the women were in fact as good as, if not better, than the men. Men are in part credited with the programme’s success "The successful employment …in an almost equal degree to the skilled man, and the employer": the employer in selecting tasks and the man ‘using all their brains and skill’ to train, and socialise the work environment. Concerns for the women’s capabilities were very real, they had to be properly trained as soldiers lives could literally depend on it. Concerns about the reaction of the existing workforce and management were also paramount as some managers refused to believe women were capable of being fitters, tool-turners etc. Monkhouse also notes that the women "face[d] obstacles both necessary and  unnecessary"; some male staff members would tease, or even sexually harass, the women and thus their safety was a real issue; welfare also affected production and a Health of Munition Workers' Committee was formed. Practical problems such as a lack of facilities also had to be overcome, as was the fact that most of the women were not used to factory work, organisation or associated environments.

Concerns were real and practical: this was a new realm for most of the women and the concern for their welfare was uppermost. Discussion followed Monkhouse's paper, on whether these women might remain in engineering after the war and what the effects on the ‘comfort and happiness’ of their homes might be.

Michael Longridge, the President, acknowledged that Monkhouse got top billing and that she was something of a sensation and summed up the situation of women in factories as "a sign of the times".  We are told several women were in the audience and Longridge was keen for them to speak but they would not. Monkhouse was the first women to give a paper.

Making the Napier Aero engine in 1915

Making the Napier Aero engine in 1915

by User Not Found | 13 Aug, 2014

6709 comments

Leave a comment
  1. Rebecca Hill | Feb 20, 2019
  2. connor | Feb 20, 2019
    Thanks for sharing this information. We need such information to create CDR Reports. You can get complete CDR Report Writing Service from us. We also provide CDR Reports in Australia, Summary Statement Writing and Career Episode Writing. Thanks for sharing this information. We need such information to create CDR Reports. You can get complete CDR Report Writing Service from us. We also provide CDR Reports in Australia, Summary Statement Writing and Career Episode Writing.
  3. reed | Feb 20, 2019
  4. Adilkhatri | Feb 20, 2019
    A decent blog dependably concocts new and energizing data and keeping in mind that understanding I have feel that this blog is truly have each one of those quality that qualify a blog to be a one.  voyant gratuit
  5. Adilkhatri | Feb 20, 2019
    Its most exceedingly awful piece was that the item just worked intermittently and the data was not exact. You plainly canot go up against anyone about what you have found if the information isn't right.  unlock samsung
  6. Anthony | Feb 20, 2019
    Nike Air Max 98
    Asics Running Shoes For Men
    Fjallraven Kanken
    Adidas Yeezy
    Asics Shoes Outlet
    Black Timberland
    Red Bottom Shoes For Women
    Adidas Superstars
    Balenciaga Sneakers
    Adidas Sneakers For Women
    Nike Outlet Store Online Shopping
    NMD R1
    Adidas Shoes
    Adidas Yeezy
    Nike Outlet Store
    Yeezys
    Nike Running Shoes
    Adidas Outlet
    Pandora Rings Official Site
    Pandora Charms Sale Clearance
    Nike Factory Store
    Best Basketball Shoes
    Balenciaga
    Louboutin
    Asics Outlet
    Adidas Superstar Shoes
    Pandora Jewelry
    Nike Store Online
    Yeezys
    Nike Air Max 95
    Adidas Yeezys
    Nike Air Max 97
    Nike Air Max 95 Essential
    Adidas Superstar Mens
    Nike Outlet Store
    Pandora Jewelry
    Yeezy 500
    Asics Outle
    Timberland Pro Work Boots
    Pandora Rings Official Site
    Pandora Bracelets
    Christian Louboutin Shoes Outlet
    Adidas Sneakers
    Nike Shoes For Women
    Valentino Outlet
    Nike Running Shoes For Women
    Adidas Shoes For Women
    Nike Outlet
    Pandora Jewelry Official Site
    Nike Shoes Outlet Online
    Air Max 97
    Pandora Jewelry Official Site
    Asics Shoes
    Adidas Stan Smith
    Yeezy
    Nike Outlet
    Nike Outlet Store Online Shopping
    Fila Sneakers
    Nike Clearance
    Nike Sneakers
    New Nike Shoes
    Adidas NMD
    Nike Air Max 270
    Air Jordans
    Asics
    Adidas Clearance
    Fitflops Sale Clearance
    Air Jordan Sneakers
    Lebron James Shoes
    Adidas Superstar
    Goyard Bags
    Nike Sneakers
    Michael Jordan Shoes
    Valentino Shoes
    Pandora Jewelry Black Friday Deals
    Pandora Jewelry Official Site
    Adidas NMD
    Adidas Originals Superstar
    Nike Factory
    Hermes Belts
    Nike UK
    Louboutin Outlet
    Yeezy 500 Black
    Nike Outlet Store
    Adidas Shoes 2019
    Pandora Necklaces
    NMDS
    Adidas EQT Support
    Longchamp Outlet Online
    Yeezy Boost 350
    Louboutin shoes
    Adidas Outlet
    Pandora Charms
    Nike Basketball Shoes
    Jordan Sneakers
    Nike Factory Outlet
    Nike Factory Store
    Air Max 270 Men
    Jordan 11
    Pandora Outlet
    Air Max 2019
    Timberland Store
    Adidas Outlet UK
    Yeezy Boost 350 V2
    Air Max 720
    Pandora Jewelry
    Off White Nike
    Puma Shoes
    Hermes Birkin
    Goyard
    Adidas Outlet
    Adidas Yeezys
    Nike Air Max 95
    New Nike Shoes
    Christian Louboutin
    Adidas Shoes
    Fila Disruptor ii
    Goyard Bag
    Nike Factory Store
    New Nike Shoes
    Nike Air Max 270
    Nike Shoes
    Nike Air Max Trainers
    Louboutin Shoes
    Air Max 97
    Yeezy Boost
    Christian Louboutin Outlet
    Asics Sneakers
    Adidas Stan Smith
    Ferragamo Belts
    Nike Trainers
    Yeezy
    Adidas Yeezy
    Pandora Charms Outlet
    Nike Outlet Store
    Golden Goose Sneakers
    Nike Sneakers
    Adidas Trainers
    Air Max 720
    Nike Outlet Online
    Ferragamo Shoes
    Adidas Factory Outlet
    Ultra Boost Adidas
    Nike Air Max 2019
    Nike Sneakers For Men
    Ultra Boost
    Timberland Outlet Store
    Nike KD 11 shoes
    Pandora
    Ultraboost
    Asics Shoes For Women
    Moncler Official Site
    Off White Nike
    Puma
    Adidas Yeezy
    Nike Shoes
    NMD
    Pandora Charms
    Nike Cortez
    Nike Outlet Store
    Yeezy
    Pandora Charms
    Adidas Shoes Women
    Timberland Shoes
    Nike Shoes
    Nike Shoes
    Christian Louboutin Shoes
    New Nike 2019
    Adidas Trainers
    Adidas
    Pandora Bracelet Charms
    Yeezysupply
    Adidas Stores
    Pandora Outlet Online
    Pandora Rings
    Nike UK
    Cortez
    Air Jordan 11
    Nike Outlet
    Nike Outlet
    Skechers Shoes
    Red Bottom Shoes For Women
    Air Max 270
    Fjallraven Kanken Backpack
    Nike KD
    Nike Outlet Store
    Pandora Bracelet Charms
    Lebron 16
    Nike Clearance
    Nike Air Max 98
    Nike Shoes For Women
    Pandora Bracelet Charms
    Adidas Ultra Boost
    Pandora Charms
    Adidas Ultra Boost Women
    Fjallraven Backpack
    Nike Running Shoes
    Pandora
    Nike Clearance
    NMDS
    Christian Louboutin
    Nike Sneakers For Men
    Pandora Charms
    Ferragamo Outlet
    Pandora Jewellery
    Red Bottoms Louboutin
    Adida
    Adidas Shoes
    Nike Shoes
    Yeezy Sneakers
    Pandora
    Cheap Nike Shoes
    Valentino
    Timberland Shoes Outlet
    Adidas Outlet
    Adidas EQT Support Adv
    Nike Shoes
    Vans Shoes Outlet
    Fila Shoes For Men
    Pandora Charms
    Nike Outlet UK
    Adidas Outlet Store
    Adidas NMD
    Christian Louboutin Shoes
    NMD
    Red Bottom Heels
    Nike Air Max 270 Men
    Yeezy Shoes
    Air Max 270 Men
    Louboutin Outlet
    Pandora Charms
    Shoes For Men
    Nike Outlet Store
    Asics Running Shoes For Men
  7. banggbigiz | Feb 20, 2019
    SBOBET ONLINESBOBET ONLINESBOBET ONLINESBOBET ONLINESBOBET ONLINESBOBET MOBILESBOBET MOBILESBOBET MOBILESBOBET MOBILESBOBET MOBILEBACCARATBACCARATBACCARATBACCARATBACCARATpoker onlinepoker onlinepoker onlinepoker onlinepoker onlineagen pokeragen pokeragen pokeragen pokeragen pokersitus poker onlinesitus poker onlinesitus poker onlinesitus poker onlinesitus poker onlineagen poker onlineagen poker onlineagen poker onlineagen poker onlineagen poker onlineSPBO HANDICAPDADU ONLINESBOBET CASINORICHUSEHARYBOXTANGKASNETBETFORTUNASBOBETSBOBET88ICETUNASBOBETSBOBET MOBILEBaccaratSbobetuk comRoulette560betAYAM BANGKOKTANGKASNETTANGKAS ONLINEION CLUBMAXBET LOGINJOKER123DADU ONLINEBOLA 88DAFTAR SBOBETSPBOSBOBET ONLINESBOBETS1288SABUNG AYAM ONLINEADU AYAMS128S128AYAM BANGKOKAGEN SABUNG AYAMADU AYAM BANGKOKADU AYAMDADU ONLINESBOBET MOBILESBOBET MOBILESBOBET MOBILESBOBET MOBILEPOKER ONLINEwww.poker.netCapsa OnlineSitus Poker OnlineAgen Poker OnlineAgen Poker TerpercayaAgen PokerPoker OnlinePoker Online IndonesiaPoker Online TerpercayaCeme OnlineCAPSA ONLINECEME ONLINESITUS POKER ONLINEAGEN POKER ONLINEAGEN POKER TERPERCAYAAGEN POKERKARTU POKERPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPoker Online TerpercayaPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINE INDONESIAAGEN POKERAGEN POKER TERPERCAYAPOKER338POKER338POKER338POKER338POKER338POKER338POKER338POKER338POKER338POKER338POKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINE INDONESIAAGEN POKERAGEN POKER TERPERCAYAAGEN POKER ONLINESITUS POKER ONLINECEME ONLINECAPSA SUSUNPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINE INDONESIAPOKER ONLINE TERPERCAYAAGEN POKERAGEN POKER TERPERCAYAAGEN POKER ONLINESITUS POKER ONLINECEME ONLINECAPSA ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINEBACCARAT ONLINELOGIN SBOBETDADU ONLINEMAXBETSPBO HANDICAPBUBUKPISAUSpbo HandicapDadu OnlineLogin SbobetLogiclubBaccarat OnlineLogin SbobetTangkasnetBaccarat OnlineSbobet CasinoBaccaratSBOBET CASINOSPBO HANDICAPDADU ONLINELOGIN SBOBETBETFORTUNASBOBET ONLINESPBO HANDICAPBACCARAT ONLINELOGICLUBDADU ONLINEbaccarat onlinebaccarat onlinebaccarat onlinebaccarat onlinebaccarat onlinebaccarat onlinebaccarat onlinebaccarat onlineJOKER123GAME IKANJOKER388SITUS JUDI BOLA RESMISITUS SBOBETAGEN SBOBETBOLA TANGKASBOLA TANGKAS GRATISS128ION CASINOLINK ALTERNATIF SBOBETLINK SBOBETJUDI ONLINE INDONESIAPOKER ONLINEAGEN POKERhttp://indo-777.org/SBOBETPOKER ONLINEDAFTAR POKER ONLINE TerpercayaPOKER ONLINEPOKER ONLINE TERPERCAYAAGEN POKER TERPERCAYAMENANGQQAGEN POKER ONLINEDOMINO INDONESIABOLA ONLINESBOBET ONLINESBOBETMenang Kalah
  8. Bella Jonas | Feb 20, 2019
    Study for convergence-and-harmonization-in-accounting and know the whole changes due to the enhancement of technologies.
  9. Adilkhatri | Feb 20, 2019
    Nomitech provides specialist business solutions for companies delivering large projects on the Construction, Oil & Gas, EPC and mining sectors and operates through an international partner network covering more than 60 countries. We help our clients to accurately estimate and control costs to save money and win more work. Our Cost Estimating software and solution, CostOS is specifically designed for companies that want to increase their competitiveness by responding to modern estimating challenges more quickly, with less effort, more accuracy and with an increased level of confidence. Also, our new cost modelling and benchmarking software, CosMo is available now. We also specialize in Primavera estimating. For more innovative products and solutions, visit our site! Cost calculation software 
  10. Adilkhatri | Feb 20, 2019
    Incredible post I should state and much obliged for the data. Instruction is unquestionably a sticky subject. Be that as it may, is still among the main themes of our opportunity. I value your post and anticipate more.  3d innovations sg
  11. Seoexpert | Feb 20, 2019
    I can give you the address Here you will figure out how to do it accurately. Read and compose something great.  sayt hazırlanması
  12. VELO2K | Feb 19, 2019
    Another great component which is certain to satisfy the a huge number of social organizers out there is the FriendStream application.  nice youtube to mp3 converter
  13. VELO2K | Feb 19, 2019
    Pretty good post. I have just stumbled upon your blog and enjoyed reading your blog posts very much. I am looking for new posts to get more precious info. Big thanks for the useful info miraclepianist video downloader
  14. 12naga | Feb 19, 2019
  15. werwr | Feb 19, 2019
    I am happy to find this post very useful for me. as it contains lot of information. I always prefer to read the quality content and this thing I found in you post. Thanks for sharing. for sale by owner columbiasc
  16. www.paymydoctor.com | Feb 19, 2019

    PayMyDoctor is an online web portal where you can access your payMyDoctor account by visiting www.paymydoctor.com the web portal.

    www.paymydoctor.com   |

    pay my doctor

  17. phenq vs phen24 | Feb 19, 2019
  18. tret | Feb 19, 2019
    This is very educational content and written well for a change. It's nice to see that some people still understand how to write a quality post.!  for sale by owner ny
  19. phen24 vs phen375 | Feb 19, 2019
  20. Seoexpert | Feb 19, 2019
    Incredible post I should state and much obliged for the data. Instruction is unquestionably a sticky subject. Be that as it may, is still among the main themes of our opportunity. I value your post and anticipate more.  voyance amour
  21. Mark James | Feb 19, 2019
    Pretty good post. This will be exceptionally helpful for me when I get an opportunity to begin my blog. Much appreciated and please keep up the viable work. Daily Tarot Reading Skills
  22. jsa asas | Feb 18, 2019
    A very awesome blog post. We are really grateful for your blog post. You will find a lot of approaches after visiting your post. I was exactly searching for. Thanks for such post and please keep it up celeb news
  23. rte | Feb 18, 2019
    Thanks for your post. I’ve been thinking about writing a very comparable post over the last couple of weeks. I’ll probably keep it short and sweet and link  to this instead if thats cool. Thanks. for sale by owner ma
  24. sreo | Feb 18, 2019
    I cherish the way you compose and share your corner! Exceptionally intriguing and distinctive! Keep it coming!&nbsp; <a href="http://vpassociates.com/our-services-tax-advisor-accountant-services/hmrc-investigation-audit-enquiry/">Tax Investigation Advisors</a>
  25. seo | Feb 18, 2019
    I cherish the way you compose and share your corner! Exceptionally intriguing and distinctive! Keep it coming!  Tax Investigation Advisors
  26. seo | Feb 18, 2019
    The post is composed in exceptionally a decent way and it contains numerous helpful data for me. Tax Investigation Advisors
  27. elizabeth tune | Feb 18, 2019
    <a href= "How Long are Cows Pregnant">How long are cows pregnant</a> This is the best site where you will get information every thing in the world particularly about cows and how long are cows pregnant.
  28. amelia | Feb 18, 2019
    Pakistan Comprehensive inclusion of Pakistan breaking news stories and examination writing about Current issue Pakistan Nations stories and <a href="http://sahaafat.com/dunnya-news/">news</a>
  29. mutualfundwala | Feb 18, 2019
    Visit for the best Mutual Fund Advisor and Companies at Mutualfundwala. Mutual Fund Agent
  30. yuuty | Feb 18, 2019
    You know your projects stand out of the herd. There is something special about them. It seems to me all of them are really brilliant! for sale by owner pa
  31. spingurus | Feb 18, 2019
    Visit spin gurus for music production and sound engineering courses. Sound Engineering Courses
  32. yhcargo | Feb 18, 2019
    Thanks for this informative blog. Visit Y & H Cargo India for shipping and Freight Forwarding. Logistics Company in India
  33. scotmaria | Feb 18, 2019
  34. Zack Smith | Feb 18, 2019
    i love reading this article so beautiful!!great job! Quit 9 To 5 Academy Mark ling
  35. Ogeninfo | Feb 18, 2019
    Nice Blog. Visit for the best Website Designing Company and SEO Service in Delhi. SEO Company in Delhi
  36. Seoexpert | Feb 18, 2019
    The best online pharmacy with free shipping worldwide on any order no matter how small or big. Trusted by thousands of returning to customers worldwide to save money on their health costs. cheap meds online
  37. BBW | Feb 17, 2019
  38. ututyu | Feb 17, 2019
    hello!! Very interesting discussion glad that I came across such informative post. Keep up the good work friend. Glad to be part of your net community. Vape kits UK
  39. aaa | Feb 17, 2019
    I love this blog!! The flash up the top is awesome!! church offering envelopes
  40. edward fox | Feb 17, 2019
    Gaming desktops are not as problematic as you might assume, and earning your personal gaming personal pc is not as tough as a lot of folks would make you imagine. Given that you by now have a precise software in thoughts when setting up your personal gaming device, there are truly only three most important elements you need to have to be concerned about, and almost everything else is genuinely secondary: the processor, movie card, and RAM. Palm Bay home painters
  41. sdsd | Feb 17, 2019
    I like most of the reports, I truly treasured, I'd prefer specifics concerning this, considering it is especially fine., Thanks a lot to get going over.pro property maintenance
  42. dsds | Feb 17, 2019
    I truly appreciate this blog article. Fantastic.glass replacement Houston
  43. DDF | Feb 17, 2019
    wow, awesome blog.Thanks Again. Much obliged.animal clinic
  44. SHARIQ KHATRI | Feb 17, 2019
    Awesome article post. Much obliged.ΑΠΟΦΡΑΞΕΙΣ ΑΘΗΝΑΣ
  45. tyrt | Feb 16, 2019
    I really loved reading your blog. It was very well authored and easy to undertand. Unlike additional blogs I have read which are really not tht good. I also found your posts very interesting. In fact after reading. I had to go show it to my friend and he ejoyed it as well! aol customer support
  46. HolyIT | Feb 16, 2019
    WaFiApPs.NeT A Best Website To Download Free Your BEst Software. i have listing some of populer software that are free and full version. windows 10 gamer free download full version crack activatorwindows 7 free download full version crack activatorDownload windows 7 free full version crack keygen 64 Bitwindows 7 Ultimate free download full version crack activator 64 Bitwindows 10 Update Ultimate free download full version crack activatoroffice 2019 free download full version crack keygenoffice 2010 free download full version crack keygenoffice 2013 free download full version crack keygenmagix music maker free download full version crack keygenadobe Creative Cloud free download full version crack keygencorel draw free download full version crack keygenunity 3d free download full version crack keygencorel painter free download full version crack activatoradobe lightroom free download full version crack keygenwindows 10 19H1 free download full version crack keygenunity pro free download full version crack activatoradobe Indesign free download full version crack activatormagix movie edit free download full version crack keygen activatormagix photostory free download full version crack keygen activatoradobe rush free download full version crack keygen activatoradobe acrobat XI free download full version crack keygen activatoradobe photoshop cs5 free download full version crack keygen activatoradobe frameMaker free download full version crack keygen activatoredius pro 8 free download full version crack keygen activatoradobe inCopy cc free download full version crack keygen activator
  47. jimmy08 | Feb 16, 2019
  48. ass | Feb 16, 2019
    Major thanks for the blog.Much thanks again. Cool.roof replacement corpus christi
  49. Linker SEO | Feb 16, 2019
    I wear t have sufficient energy right now to completely read your site however I have bookmarked it and furthermore include your RSS channels. I will return in a day or two. much obliged for an extraordinary site.  instagram takipçi satın al
  50. sdsd | Feb 16, 2019
    nice post, keep up with this interesting work. It really is good to know that this topic is being covered also on this web site so cheers for taking time to discuss this!Android 8

    Leave a comment

    The photographs show just how varied the work that women undertook was: and the variety of new skills that therefore had to the taught and obtained. This new workforce, alongside the remaining male workers, not only delivered munitions but also worked on other weapons and in back offices and research roles. Both at home and on the Continent women worked in forestry, medicine and as drivers.

    Click here to read the full paper and discussions. Or here to read about the Royal Small Arms Factory in Enfield.

    Views from the Home Front

    Oliver Heaviside, seen here, became a telegraph clerk for the Anglo-Danish Telegraph Company, later the Great Northern Telegraph Company, in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1868. After 1874, he began work on a series of problems in telegraphy and signal transmission using experimentation, mathematics and vector analysis. He had long and famous disagreements with Sir William Henry Preece over the introduction of inductance to long distance communication cables to improve the transmission of signals, amongst others and was an active letter writer. Heaviside continued his correspondence with leading engineers and scientists throughout the war. They contain commentary on the war, including personal views.

    Poisonous gases were one area of debate, between Heaviside and the Oxford University lecturer Dr CV Burton. In 1915 Burton went to work in the Royal Aircraft Factory, Department H (Physics) at Farnborough; he was killed in an explosion there in 1917. His views on the use of poisonous gases offer a window into how people at home felt about aggressive methods at the front:

    “If it is merely a question of dirty tricks played on occasion, like white flag treachery, we needn’t follow the methods of the enemy; but when methods are resorted to which give an advantage to the user and may be or paramount military importance, we can’t afford to fight such a one-sided battle, whatever degree of barbarity may be involved. Don’t you agree? One needn’t be vindictive enough to choose a specially painful way when more humane means are available, but I’m afraid any gases which can be used in sufficient quantities to be effective will cause fearful suffering. We can’t help that: the alternative is to let ourselves to be beaten, because we are too considerate to fight the enemy with his own weapons; which would mean that the chlorine-fiends would rule the earth”.

    Ironically it was phosgene (used as a chemical weapon) which killed him. Burton would also share anecdotes of his wartime work and experiences:

    “One of our pilots had a thrilling adventure the other day. He started from Farnborough to take a new type of machine to the front: it is about 1 ½ hours flight. As he was nearing the French coast, in driving rain, the engine suddenly seized, the propeller smashed with the sudden stoppage, & bits of the engine flew about, some of them penetrating the wings. He could see no land, and took off his coat and waistcoat in readiness for a plunge into the foaming sea (it was very rough). Then he caught sight of a blacking object that looked like Boulogne pier & made for it;... say 120 m.p.h. The ambulance people rushed out to his assistance, but he had managed to turn up-wind, and alight in a field without further mishap.”

    Another correspondent was George Frederick Charles Searle, he informed Heaviside how Burton died:

    “Burton was killed about 15 or 16 months ago at the Royal Aircraft ’Establishment’ (late ‘Factory’). He was doing something with Phosgene, a very poisonous gas. This is easily liquefied and he had a ‘syphon’ (like a soda water syphon) of the liquid. The bottle burst (it was not at high pressure). Burton got the stuff all over him. He seemed at first as if he had just recovered but a few hours later died.” Tragically, Searle goes on to say, ‘Mrs Burton a day or two later took poison and died also.”

    Through letters we get a glimpse of how people, indirectly, involved in the war felt and saw the conflict: Burton offers a pragmatic view which may seem shocking in today's context; he also though offers a 'fun' boys own adventure story, which suggests an element of enthusiasm for the excitement of war.


    Heaviside
    Oliver Heaviside (1850-1925). Read his biography in Resources.


    Burton’s last letter to Heaviside (he died 4 weeks later) dated 30 December 1916
    Burton’s last letter to Heaviside (he died 4 weeks later) dated 30 Dec 1916.
    Credits/footnotes:

    Ellis papers and image,
    NAEST 155/3 IET Archives.

    Images:

    Factory workers, IMechE Archive except for the following used with thanks to Tyne and Wear Archive for image A7774/2 Lathe operator at Heaton Works, 1914-1918 (first in gallery) and to Imperial War Museum for images Q 30040 Women workers at the National Shell Filling Factory, Chilwell and Q106565 Members of the Women’s Forestry Corps in Sussex.


    Heaverside portrait and letter excerpt, IET Archive.