Many engineers were not allowed to sign up to the forces as they were deemed indispensable and instead they supported the war from home. The increased need for munitions and related items meant a new workforce was needed, both to meet demand and because many men had gone to war; women formed the core of this.

Home Forces

Harry Stephenson Ellis served with No. 3 Signals Section of the Durham Royal Engineers Volunteer Home Force. However, he had originally requested foreign service. Ellis wrote to Lieutenant Colonel Walsh to request leave from his position as Borough Electrical Engineer in South Shields to join the Royal Engineers. The request was refused as Ellis’s work as a skilled electrical engineer at home was recognised as being of more use to the war effort than joining the ranks of the Royal Engineers:

“…I have come to the conclusion that you really have absolutely no business or right to leave the important post which you are now holding".

To dissuade him from joining the Royal Engineers in France, Walsh then suggested he enrol in the Volunteer Corps. Ellis did not give up easily and applied in 1916 for a commission in the Royal Flying Corps. Although not yet on active service, Major General Shaw (Home Forces) described in May 1916 how Ellis’s method of painting street lamps was favourably received by the Field Marshall; he sent drawings on how to minimise white light on the ground produced by arc lamps. By April 1917 Ellis had finally offered his services as a National Service Volunteer:

“Your offer has been recorded, but in view of the nature of your occupation it can only be considered after dealing with the offers of men engaged in work of less essential importance.”

Ellis did not give up; such was his patriotism and desire to enlist, even though he now accepted this would be on the home front and November 1917 Ellis had succeeded to join the war effort. He was accepted as a Lieutenant in the Volunteer Force, County of Durham Volunteer Engineers, exactly two years after his initial request. He was the commanding officer for No.3 Signals Section of the Durham Royal Engineers Volunteer Corps. In May 1919, he received orders for the disbandment of the Volunteer Force and the re-opening of the Territorial Force. He was in command of checking all remaining stores and the accommodation at the Drill Hall.

“I am commanded by the Army Council to inform you that in recognition of your services as an officer of the Volunteer Force in the Durham Royal Engineers (V.) you have been granted the Honorary Rank of Lieutenant…I am to take this opportunity of conveying the thanks of the Army council for your services to the Country during the Great War, and for the excellent work you have done.”

Ellis left Durham in 1919 to take up employment as Borough Electrical Engineer in Southampton. His story highlights how engineers who remained on the home front, continuing their work, helped the war effort. Despite pressure to fight many had to remain in post at home as their occupation was so skilled it could not be replicated by another. It was also important that their expertise was used to remain ahead of the enemy and not to give them the advantage in warfare.

NAEST 155 03 114 Photograph of Lt Ellis
Photograph of Ellis in the Royal Engineer Signals. Read his biography in Resources.

NAEST 155 03 06 Volunteer Force certificate
Printed certificate for appointment to Volunteer Force.

Munitions

War brought with it a huge increase in demand for munitions, at the same time the workforce was reduced by men signing up. By 1918, almost a million women were employed in munitions and engineering works, with 80% of shells being made by women by 1917: in the decade before only 212,000 had been employed in these areas. A government policy was introduced to ensure their training, ‘Dilution’.

Olive Monkhouse, Chief Woman Dilution Officer, Ministry of Munitions gave a paper on this at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, a debate followed. It was accepted that when properly trained the women were in fact as good as, if not better, than the men. Men are in part credited with the programme’s success "The successful employment …in an almost equal degree to the skilled man, and the employer": the employer in selecting tasks and the man ‘using all their brains and skill’ to train, and socialise the work environment. Concerns for the women’s capabilities were very real, they had to be properly trained as soldiers lives could literally depend on it. Concerns about the reaction of the existing workforce and management were also paramount as some managers refused to believe women were capable of being fitters, tool-turners etc. Monkhouse also notes that the women "face[d] obstacles both necessary and  unnecessary"; some male staff members would tease, or even sexually harass, the women and thus their safety was a real issue; welfare also affected production and a Health of Munition Workers' Committee was formed. Practical problems such as a lack of facilities also had to be overcome, as was the fact that most of the women were not used to factory work, organisation or associated environments.

Concerns were real and practical: this was a new realm for most of the women and the concern for their welfare was uppermost. Discussion followed Monkhouse's paper, on whether these women might remain in engineering after the war and what the effects on the ‘comfort and happiness’ of their homes might be.

Michael Longridge, the President, acknowledged that Monkhouse got top billing and that she was something of a sensation and summed up the situation of women in factories as "a sign of the times".  We are told several women were in the audience and Longridge was keen for them to speak but they would not. Monkhouse was the first women to give a paper.

Members of the Women’s Forestry Corps in Sussex

Members of the Women’s Forestry Corps in Sussex

by User Not Found | 13 Aug, 2014

365 comments

Leave a comment
  1. Christina Moore | Jul 22, 2017
    Each time when i evolved into with your web page while using unique focus simply a little little bit submits. Eye-catching technique for years to come, We will be book-marking presently include products obtain arises suitable in place. renta de oficinas virtuales
  2. Tarima de exterior | Jul 22, 2017
  3. Jeevan | Jul 21, 2017

    Great info! I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don’t know what to say except that I have.
    http://www.fifa16hacknosurvey.com
  4. Rajeev | Jul 21, 2017
    Impressive web site, Distinguished feedback that I can tackle. I am moving forward and may apply to my current job as a pet sitter, which is very enjoyable, but I need to additional expand. Regards.
    http://www.pixelgun3dhackdownload.com
  5. Sahil | Jul 21, 2017
    valuable data on themes that bounty are intrigued on for this great post.Admiring the time and exertion you put into your b!..
    http://www.snapbrute.com
  6. robinjack | Jul 20, 2017
    I've perused some well done here. Certainly worth bookmarking for returning to. I astound the amount of exertion you put to make such an extraordinary useful site.  escorts beirut
  7. ali | Jul 20, 2017
    I use basically superior fabrics : you will discover these products by: Type My Essay
  8. Heaven | Jul 20, 2017
    I read that Post and got it fine and enlightening. <a href="http://www.clashofclansgemhack.com/">Clash of Clans Hack</a>
  9. komal varshney | Jul 17, 2017
    USPS delivery hours USPS delivery hours USPS delivery hours USPS delivery hours USPS delivery hours USPS delivery hours USPS delivery hours USPS delivery hours USPS delivery hours USPS delivery hours USPS delivery hours USPS delivery hours USPS delivery hours USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number USPS tracking Number US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail US Postal Hold mail USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS change Address USPS Saturday hours USPS Saturday hours USPS Saturday hours USPS Saturday hours USPS Saturday hours USPS Saturday hours USPS Saturday hours USPS Saturday hours USPS Saturday hours USPS track package USPS track package"> USPS track package USPS track package USPS track package USPS track package USPS track package USPS track package USPS track package USPS track package USPS track package USPS track package USPS track package USPS Sunday hours USPS Sunday hours USPS Sunday hours USPS Sunday hours USPS Sunday hours USPS Sunday hours USPS Sunday hours USPS Sunday hours USPS Sunday hours USPS Sunday hours USPS Sunday hours USPS Sunday hours USPS Sunday hours USPS Sunday hours USPS Sunday hours USPS Sunday hours USPS Mail forwarding USPS Mail forwarding USPS Mail forwarding USPS Mail forwarding USPS Mail forwarding USPS Mail forwarding USPS Mail forwarding USPS Mail forwarding USPS Mail forwarding USPS Mail forwarding USPS Mail forwarding USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number USPS lost tracking Number mail hold USPS mail hold USPS mail hold USPS mail hold USPS mail hold USPS USPS Number tracking USPS Number tracking USPS Number tracking USPS Number tracking USPS Number tracking Pizza hut holiday hours  Pizza hut holiday hours  Pizza hut holiday hours  McDonald's holiday hours  McDonald's holiday hours  McDonald's holiday  hours  Costco holiday hours  Costco holiday hours  Costco holiday hours  Chase bank holiday hours  Chase Bank holiday hours  KFC holiday  hours  KFC holiday hours  KFC holiday hours  Pizza hut location near me  Pizza hut location near me  Pizza hut location near me  Pizza hut location near me  Pizza hut location near me  McDonalds location near me  McDonalds location near me  McDonalds location near me  McDonalds location near me  McDonalds location near me>  Chase Bank location near me Chase Bank location near me  Chase Bank location near me  Chase Bank location near me  Chase Bank location near me  Chase Bank location near me  Costco location near me  Costco location near me  Costco location near me  Costco location near me  Costco location near me Costco location near me  Costco location near me  Costco location near me  Costco location near me O'Reilly autostore hours  O'Reilly autostore hours  O'Reilly autostore hours  O'Reilly autostore hours  O'Reilly autostore hours  O'Reilly autostore hours  O'Reilly autostore hours  O'Reilly autostore hours  O'Reilly autostore hours  O'Reilly autostore hours  O'Reilly autostore hours  O'Reilly autostore hours  PC and sons richards hours  PC and sons richards hours  PC and sons richards hours  PC and sons richards hours  PC and sons richards hours  PC and sons richards hours  PC and sons richards hours  PC and sons richards hours  PC and sons richards hours  PC and sons richards hours  PC and sons richards hours  PC and sons richards hours  PC and sons richards hours  PC and sons richards hours  PC and sons richards hours  PC and sons richards hours  Gamestop hours  Gamestop hours Gamestop hours Gamestop hours Gamestop hours Gamestop hours Gamestop hours Gamestop hours Gamestop hours Gamestop hours Gamestop hours Gamestop hours Gamestop hours Gamestop hours Gamestop hours Gamestop hours Gamestop hours Golden Corral hours Golden Corral hours Golden Corral hours Golden Corral hours Golden Corral hours Golden Corral hours Golden Corral hours Golden Corral hours Golden Corral hours Golden Corral hours Golden Corral hours Golden Corral hours Golden Corral hours Golden Corral hours Golden Corral hours Golden Corral hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Kohl's hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Dollar tree hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours Sam's club hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours CVS hours Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  Michael's hours  T-Mobile hours T-Mobile hours T-Mobile hours T-Mobile hours T-Mobile hours T-Mobile hours T-Mobile hours T-Mobile hours T-Mobile hours T-Mobile hours T-Mobile hours T-Mobile hours T-Mobile hours T-Mobile hours T-Mobile hours T-Mobile hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours ABC store hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours Wendy's hours    
  10. دانلود قسمت چهارم شهرزاد دوم | Jul 15, 2017

    دانلود قسمت چهارم فصل دوم شهرزاد 2, دانلود رایگان شهرزاد, دانلود سریال جدید شهرزاد ایرانی دانلود سریال شهرزاد با لینک مستقیم, دانلود فیلم های جدید و برتر, دانلود رایگان فیلم و سریال با لینک مستقیم

    دانلود قسمت چهارم شهرزاد دوم

  11. lucky patcher apk download | Jul 14, 2017
    We viewed at a distance your website seeing as With regards to through listened to a lot of based on a persons content. lucky patcher apk download
  12. Sadiya Khan | Jul 14, 2017

    I am so much excited after reading your blog. Your blog is very much innovative and much helpful for any industry as well as for person

    Goa Escorts Girls Independent  Escorts in Delhi

  13. ali | Jul 13, 2017
    I have a similar interest this is my page    read everything carefully and let me know what you think. Beatles au cinéma
  14. happywheels | Jul 13, 2017
    The game is best known for its dark sense of humor and its graphic violence. Expect to see a lot of blood and guts. Your goal is to go far across each level without letting your character get hurt. The game is over even the smallest body part injuries. It takes much patience to finish the goal. Is this much challenging? Make your best efforts to survive in this glory and funny game. We can find a way to break through Even if we can't find heaven, I'll walk through hell with you. geometry dash happy wheels 
  15. james jack | Jul 12, 2017
    Its as if you had a great grasp on the subject matter, but you forgot to include your readers. Perhaps you should think about this from more than one angle. Flower delivery brazil
  16. sdasd | Jul 12, 2017
  17. sdfsfsd | Jul 12, 2017
  18. sdfsfd | Jul 12, 2017
  19. sfdsdf | Jul 12, 2017
  20. dff | Jul 12, 2017
    Best site to find newspapers directory is Librly. Do not wait just find list of newspapers or full best newspapers directory. If you are intrested in top newspapers in world just go to Librly. You will find complete list of newspapers in world contains best newspapers in world
  21. Kann | Jul 11, 2017

    Well human beings are naturally attracted to social proof. So the more simulated live viewers and likes they see, the greater the interest in your video and the higher the chance of more likes, shares and comments. Therefore, we would recommend the Enterprise package as this allows a massive 100,000 viewers. auto emulate live review

    You're publishing the video anyway, so you may as well get tons more exposure without having to do any more work. The software is doing it all for you.

  22. sadfg | Jul 10, 2017
  23. ali | Jul 10, 2017
    Within this webpage, you'll see the page, you need to understand this data. student accomodation investment
  24. ali | Jul 10, 2017
    Awesome dispatch! I am indeed getting apt to over this info, is truly neighborly my buddy. Likewise fantastic blog here among many of the costly info you acquire. Reserve up the beneficial process you are doing here. lone worker alarm
  25. ali | Jul 10, 2017
    Awesome dispatch! I am indeed getting apt to over this info, is truly neighborly my buddy. Likewise fantastic blog here among many of the costly info you acquire. Reserve up the beneficial process you are doing here. thai food in birmingham
  26. ali | Jul 10, 2017
    It is somewhat fantastic, and yet check out the advice at this treat. Pallet Lifter
  27. ali | Jul 10, 2017
    I have a similar interest this is my page    read everything carefully and let me know what you think. child therapist
  28. ali | Jul 10, 2017
    Very interesting information, worth recommending. However, I recommend this:  radio fitting
  29. lakshmi | Jul 10, 2017
  30. ali | Jul 09, 2017
    We help Canadian and American Expats, Temporary Guests and Snowbirds with assets on both sides of the U.S.-Canada border — optimally structure their investments, liabilities and retirement savings in order to reduce their tax burden and minimize fees. immigration to the us
  31. jamesajck | Jul 09, 2017
     What a good blog you have here. Please update it more often. This topics is my interest. Thank you. . .  Stackers
  32. jamesajck | Jul 09, 2017
     Really impressed! Everything is very open and very clear clarification of issues. It contains truly facts. Your website is very valuable. Thanks for sharing. car audio installation
  33. jamesjack | Jul 08, 2017
    Unlock a Better Future With an Online Master's Degree in Social Work Masters Degree
  34. Linker SEO | Jul 08, 2017
    I have to thank you for ones time for this especially fabulous read !! I unquestionably truly preferred all aspects of it and i likewise have you spared to take a gander at new data in your site. API for IoT developers
  35. diets | Jul 07, 2017
    Find your supplement for weight loss - Diet pills reviews
  36. forrs | Jul 07, 2017
    Learn how does forskolin works for weight loss - Forskolin Reviews
  37. mirac | Jul 07, 2017
    Learn why is miracle bust so popular in breast enhancement - Miracle Bust Review
  38. bess | Jul 07, 2017
    Best breast enlargement pills for 2017
  39. bibb | Jul 07, 2017
  40. bobsi | Jul 07, 2017
    Learn <a href="http://howtomakeboobsbigger.com/">how to get bigger breasts</a> fast and healthy.
  41. ali | Jul 06, 2017
    Within this webpage, you'll see the page, you need to understand this data. Casino bonussen
  42. download moviebox | Jul 06, 2017
    I am cheerful to locate your recognized method for composing the post. Presently you make it simple for me to comprehend and actualize the idea. Much obliged to you for the post. download moviebox
  43. ali | Jul 05, 2017
    Awesome dispatch! I am indeed getting apt to over this info, is truly neighborly my buddy. Likewise fantastic blog here among many of the costly info you acquire. Reserve up the beneficial process you are doing here. Adderley Primary School
  44. jamesajck | Jul 05, 2017

    All the contents you mentioned in post is too good and can be very useful. I will keep it in mind, thanks for sharing the information keep updating, looking forward for more posts.Thanks .!

    overwater villas

  45. jamesjack | Jul 05, 2017
    Thanks for posting this info. I just want to let you know that I just check out your site and I find it very interesting and informative. I can't wait to read lots of your posts.!
    overwater villas
  46. John Martin | Jul 05, 2017
    I want to say about this article, uummm this is amazing and nice post. Case-Study-Solutions.com
  47. John Martin | Jul 05, 2017
    Thanks for Nice and Informative Post. This article is really contains lot more information about This Topic. thecasesolutions.com
  48. ali | Jul 04, 2017
    It is somewhat fantastic, and yet check out the advice at this treat. Hand Pallet Trucks
  49. navigate here | Jul 04, 2017
    I have read your article, it is very informative and helpful for me.I admire the valuable information you offer in your articles. Thanks for posting it..navigate here
  50. ali | Jul 03, 2017
    I have a similar interest this is my page    read everything carefully and let me know what you think. website designer newcastle

    Leave a comment

    The photographs show just how varied the work that women undertook was: and the variety of new skills that therefore had to the taught and obtained. This new workforce, alongside the remaining male workers, not only delivered munitions but also worked on other weapons and in back offices and research roles. Both at home and on the Continent women worked in forestry, medicine and as drivers.

    Click here to read the full paper and discussions. Or here to read about the Royal Small Arms Factory in Enfield.

    Views from the Home Front

    Oliver Heaviside, seen here, became a telegraph clerk for the Anglo-Danish Telegraph Company, later the Great Northern Telegraph Company, in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1868. After 1874, he began work on a series of problems in telegraphy and signal transmission using experimentation, mathematics and vector analysis. He had long and famous disagreements with Sir William Henry Preece over the introduction of inductance to long distance communication cables to improve the transmission of signals, amongst others and was an active letter writer. Heaviside continued his correspondence with leading engineers and scientists throughout the war. They contain commentary on the war, including personal views.

    Poisonous gases were one area of debate, between Heaviside and the Oxford University lecturer Dr CV Burton. In 1915 Burton went to work in the Royal Aircraft Factory, Department H (Physics) at Farnborough; he was killed in an explosion there in 1917. His views on the use of poisonous gases offer a window into how people at home felt about aggressive methods at the front:

    “If it is merely a question of dirty tricks played on occasion, like white flag treachery, we needn’t follow the methods of the enemy; but when methods are resorted to which give an advantage to the user and may be or paramount military importance, we can’t afford to fight such a one-sided battle, whatever degree of barbarity may be involved. Don’t you agree? One needn’t be vindictive enough to choose a specially painful way when more humane means are available, but I’m afraid any gases which can be used in sufficient quantities to be effective will cause fearful suffering. We can’t help that: the alternative is to let ourselves to be beaten, because we are too considerate to fight the enemy with his own weapons; which would mean that the chlorine-fiends would rule the earth”.

    Ironically it was phosgene (used as a chemical weapon) which killed him. Burton would also share anecdotes of his wartime work and experiences:

    “One of our pilots had a thrilling adventure the other day. He started from Farnborough to take a new type of machine to the front: it is about 1 ½ hours flight. As he was nearing the French coast, in driving rain, the engine suddenly seized, the propeller smashed with the sudden stoppage, & bits of the engine flew about, some of them penetrating the wings. He could see no land, and took off his coat and waistcoat in readiness for a plunge into the foaming sea (it was very rough). Then he caught sight of a blacking object that looked like Boulogne pier & made for it;... say 120 m.p.h. The ambulance people rushed out to his assistance, but he had managed to turn up-wind, and alight in a field without further mishap.”

    Another correspondent was George Frederick Charles Searle, he informed Heaviside how Burton died:

    “Burton was killed about 15 or 16 months ago at the Royal Aircraft ’Establishment’ (late ‘Factory’). He was doing something with Phosgene, a very poisonous gas. This is easily liquefied and he had a ‘syphon’ (like a soda water syphon) of the liquid. The bottle burst (it was not at high pressure). Burton got the stuff all over him. He seemed at first as if he had just recovered but a few hours later died.” Tragically, Searle goes on to say, ‘Mrs Burton a day or two later took poison and died also.”

    Through letters we get a glimpse of how people, indirectly, involved in the war felt and saw the conflict: Burton offers a pragmatic view which may seem shocking in today's context; he also though offers a 'fun' boys own adventure story, which suggests an element of enthusiasm for the excitement of war.


    Heaviside
    Oliver Heaviside (1850-1925). Read his biography in Resources.


    Burton’s last letter to Heaviside (he died 4 weeks later) dated 30 December 1916
    Burton’s last letter to Heaviside (he died 4 weeks later) dated 30 Dec 1916.
    Credits/footnotes:

    Ellis papers and image,
    NAEST 155/3 IET Archives.

    Images:

    Factory workers, IMechE Archive except for the following used with thanks to Tyne and Wear Archive for image A7774/2 Lathe operator at Heaton Works, 1914-1918 (first in gallery) and to Imperial War Museum for images Q 30040 Women workers at the National Shell Filling Factory, Chilwell and Q106565 Members of the Women’s Forestry Corps in Sussex.


    Heaverside portrait and letter excerpt, IET Archive.