Many engineers were not allowed to sign up to the forces as they were deemed indispensable and instead they supported the war from home. The increased need for munitions and related items meant a new workforce was needed, both to meet demand and because many men had gone to war; women formed the core of this.

Home Forces

Harry Stephenson Ellis served with No. 3 Signals Section of the Durham Royal Engineers Volunteer Home Force. However, he had originally requested foreign service. Ellis wrote to Lieutenant Colonel Walsh to request leave from his position as Borough Electrical Engineer in South Shields to join the Royal Engineers. The request was refused as Ellis’s work as a skilled electrical engineer at home was recognised as being of more use to the war effort than joining the ranks of the Royal Engineers:

“…I have come to the conclusion that you really have absolutely no business or right to leave the important post which you are now holding".

To dissuade him from joining the Royal Engineers in France, Walsh then suggested he enrol in the Volunteer Corps. Ellis did not give up easily and applied in 1916 for a commission in the Royal Flying Corps. Although not yet on active service, Major General Shaw (Home Forces) described in May 1916 how Ellis’s method of painting street lamps was favourably received by the Field Marshall; he sent drawings on how to minimise white light on the ground produced by arc lamps. By April 1917 Ellis had finally offered his services as a National Service Volunteer:

“Your offer has been recorded, but in view of the nature of your occupation it can only be considered after dealing with the offers of men engaged in work of less essential importance.”

Ellis did not give up; such was his patriotism and desire to enlist, even though he now accepted this would be on the home front and November 1917 Ellis had succeeded to join the war effort. He was accepted as a Lieutenant in the Volunteer Force, County of Durham Volunteer Engineers, exactly two years after his initial request. He was the commanding officer for No.3 Signals Section of the Durham Royal Engineers Volunteer Corps. In May 1919, he received orders for the disbandment of the Volunteer Force and the re-opening of the Territorial Force. He was in command of checking all remaining stores and the accommodation at the Drill Hall.

“I am commanded by the Army Council to inform you that in recognition of your services as an officer of the Volunteer Force in the Durham Royal Engineers (V.) you have been granted the Honorary Rank of Lieutenant…I am to take this opportunity of conveying the thanks of the Army council for your services to the Country during the Great War, and for the excellent work you have done.”

Ellis left Durham in 1919 to take up employment as Borough Electrical Engineer in Southampton. His story highlights how engineers who remained on the home front, continuing their work, helped the war effort. Despite pressure to fight many had to remain in post at home as their occupation was so skilled it could not be replicated by another. It was also important that their expertise was used to remain ahead of the enemy and not to give them the advantage in warfare.

NAEST 155 03 114 Photograph of Lt Ellis
Photograph of Ellis in the Royal Engineer Signals. Read his biography in Resources.

NAEST 155 03 06 Volunteer Force certificate
Printed certificate for appointment to Volunteer Force.

Munitions

War brought with it a huge increase in demand for munitions, at the same time the workforce was reduced by men signing up. By 1918, almost a million women were employed in munitions and engineering works, with 80% of shells being made by women by 1917: in the decade before only 212,000 had been employed in these areas. A government policy was introduced to ensure their training, ‘Dilution’.

Olive Monkhouse, Chief Woman Dilution Officer, Ministry of Munitions gave a paper on this at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, a debate followed. It was accepted that when properly trained the women were in fact as good as, if not better, than the men. Men are in part credited with the programme’s success "The successful employment …in an almost equal degree to the skilled man, and the employer": the employer in selecting tasks and the man ‘using all their brains and skill’ to train, and socialise the work environment. Concerns for the women’s capabilities were very real, they had to be properly trained as soldiers lives could literally depend on it. Concerns about the reaction of the existing workforce and management were also paramount as some managers refused to believe women were capable of being fitters, tool-turners etc. Monkhouse also notes that the women "face[d] obstacles both necessary and  unnecessary"; some male staff members would tease, or even sexually harass, the women and thus their safety was a real issue; welfare also affected production and a Health of Munition Workers' Committee was formed. Practical problems such as a lack of facilities also had to be overcome, as was the fact that most of the women were not used to factory work, organisation or associated environments.

Concerns were real and practical: this was a new realm for most of the women and the concern for their welfare was uppermost. Discussion followed Monkhouse's paper, on whether these women might remain in engineering after the war and what the effects on the ‘comfort and happiness’ of their homes might be.

Michael Longridge, the President, acknowledged that Monkhouse got top billing and that she was something of a sensation and summed up the situation of women in factories as "a sign of the times".  We are told several women were in the audience and Longridge was keen for them to speak but they would not. Monkhouse was the first women to give a paper.

Napier laboratory 1915

Napier laboratory 1915

by User Not Found | 13 Aug, 2014

1446 comments

Leave a comment
  1. pon | Feb 19, 2019
    Hi everyone! I’m new here. UFABET
  2. non | Feb 19, 2019
    I’m new here. Forex
  3. top | Feb 19, 2019
  4. seo | Feb 18, 2019
    Much obliged to you so much Love your web journal..  Tax Investigation Advisors
  5. seo | Feb 18, 2019
    The data you have posted is exceptionally helpful. The destinations you have alluded was great. A debt of gratitude is in order for sharing..  Tax Investigation Advisors
  6. Lisa | Feb 18, 2019
    Air Jordan 11 Fitflop Sandals Air Max 95 Jordan Retro Soccer Shoes Adidas NMD XR1 Pandora Nike Air Max Lebron Shoes Christian Louboutin shoes Yeezy boost 350 v2 Air Max Shoes Nike Air Uptempo Air Max 90 Adidas Outlet Store Pandora Jewelry Outlet Timberlad Boots Ferragamo Belt Pandora Jewelry Jimmy Choo Shoes Outlet Birkenstock Shoes Cheap Basketball Shoes Pandora Ring Ferragamo Outlet Kate Spade Outlet Nike Huaraches Moncler Jackets Air Jordan Shoes Jordan Retro 11 Nike Air Max 270 Flyknit Nike Vapor Max Isabel Marant Boots Adidas NMD Ralph Lauren Outlet Pandora Charms Skechers Nike Air Jordan Pandora Nike Roshe Nike Air Max 2018 Valentino Sandals Balenciaga Sneakers Pandora Charms Kate Spade Handbags Pandora Timberland Boots Curry Shoes Louboutin Shoes Nike Outlet Christian Louboutin Shoes Ralph Lauren Outlet Jordan Retro Birkenstock Outlet Pandora Jewelry Moncler Jackets Nike Outlet Store Pandora Jewelry 70% Off Clearance Win Like 96 Louboutin Shoes Ralph Lauren Red Bottoms Nike Cortez Christian Louboutin Nike Shoes For Women Jordan Retro 14 Yeezys Pandora Jewelry Moncler Outlet Jordan 9 Pandora Ring Air Jordan 11 New Jordans 2018 Kate Spade Pandora Charms Outlet Yeezy Boost 350 Fitflop Louboutin Shoes Air Jordan Pandora Jewelry Yeezy Pandora Outlet Kate Spade Adidas NMD Nike Shox Gravity Balenciaga Sneakers Kyrie Irving Shoes Michael Kors Canada Outlet Fitflops Sale Clearance Nike Shoes For Men Nike React Michael Kors Canada Pandora Bracelets Pandora Bracelet Air Jordan Sneakers Pandora Canada Jordan Shoes Pandora Bracelet Skechers Christian Louboutin Kanken Backpack Jordan Retro 11 Pandora Outlet North Face Jackets Air Max Jordan 11 Space Jam Adidas NMD Christian Louboutin Shoes Jordan 11 Yeezy Shoes Nike Outlet Kate Spade Bags Birkenstock Sale Air Max 98 Pandora Jewelry Outlet Vans Jordan 12 Red Bottom Shoes Air Jordan 4 Nike Outlet Store Nike Air Force 1 Low Air Max Pandora Charm Vapor Max Pandora CZ James Harden shoes Nike Outlet Pandora Outlet Adidas NMD XR1 ECCO Shoes For Women Kyrie 4 Pandora Jewelry Outlet Pandora Jewelry Nike KD Shoes Nike Presto Women Pandora Official Site Curry 5 Shoes New Jordans 2019 Puma Shoes Moncler Outlet Birkenstock Pandora Bracelets North Face Outlet NMD R1 Nike Air Max Adidas Superstar Shoes Nike Outlet Store Jordan 8 Adidas Shoes Fitflop Website Pandora Official Site Birkenstock Sandals Birkenstocks Adidas Outlet Pandora Jewelry Polo Ralph Lauren Outlet Online Christian Louboutin Shoes Harden vol 1 Yeezy Boost Nike Shoes Kate Spade Lebron 15 Shoes Pandora Jewelry Official Site Ed Hardy Birkenstock Outlet Christian Louboutin Shoes Air Force One Shoes Ralph Lauren Nike Clearance Air Max 270 Longchamp Handbags Jordan Shoes Pandora Jewelry Moncler Pandora Jewelry Moncler UK Nike Sneakers Pandora Jewelry Official Site Moncler Pandora Charm Pandora Air Max Plus Pandora Jewelry Official Site Nike Outlet Store Pandora Charms Outlet Pandora Jewelry Jordan 11 Red James Harden Shoes Kate Spade Outlet Online Balenciaga Triple S ECCO Vapor Max Plus Pandora Rings Official Site Womens Nike Shoes Timberland Outlet Nike Roshe Air Force 1 Longchamp Handbags Nike Clearance Adidas Yeezy Kyrie 4 Shoes Kyrie Irving Shoes Adidas Yeezy Goyard Bags Pandora Polo Ralph Lauren Outlet Pandora Charms Outlet Moncler Jacket Vans Shoes Moncler Outlet Disney Pandora Charms Air Max 270 Pandora Bracelets Rihanna Puma Hermes Birkin Bag Adidas Yeezy Adidas NMD R1 Air Max 270 Nike Vapormax Birkenstock Sandals For Men Fitflop Sandals Nike Air Max 2018 Jordan 10 Yeezy Adidas Cheap Jordan Shoes Pandora Jewelry Kate Spade Kyrie Shoes MBT Shoes Burberry Bags Outlet Moncler Adidas Stan Smith Polo Ralph Lauren Outlet Pandora Jewelry Fitflop Yeezys Yeezy Sneakers Red Bottom Shoes For Women Fjallraven Kanken Yeezy Shoes Bottega Veneta Valentino Outlet Goyard Handbags Pandora Jewelry Nike Air Force 1 Pandora Charms Pandora Louboutin Shoes Red Bottoms Nike Outlet Store Online Shopping Ultra Boost Adidas Balenciaga Triple S Ferragamo Outlet Pandora Charms Nike Outlet Online Longchamp Bags Pandora Charms Adidas Shoes Goyard Handbags Nike Roshes Lebron 15 Jordans 11 Birkenstock Outlet Christian Louboutin Pandora Jewelry Outlet Nike Vapormax
  7. jsa asas | Feb 17, 2019
    I really like your blog. Great article. It's most evident, people should learn before they are able to https://suspensionrev.wixsite.com/
  8. holyit | Feb 16, 2019
    WaFiApPs.NeT A Best Website To Download Free Your BEst Software. i have listing some of populer software that are free and full version.  windows 10 gamer free download full version crack activatorwindows 7 free download full version crack activatorDownload windows 7 free full version crack keygen 64 Bitwindows 7 Ultimate free download full version crack activator 64 Bitwindows 10 Update Ultimate free download full version crack activatoroffice 2019 free download full version crack keygenoffice 2010 free download full version crack keygenoffice 2013 free download full version crack keygenmagix music maker free download full version crack keygenadobe Creative Cloud free download full version crack keygencorel draw free download full version crack keygenunity 3d free download full version crack keygencorel painter free download full version crack activatoradobe lightroom free download full version crack keygenwindows 10 19H1 free download full version crack keygenunity pro free download full version crack activatoradobe Indesign free download full version crack activatormagix movie edit free download full version crack keygen activatormagix photostory free download full version crack keygen activatoradobe rush free download full version crack keygen activatoradobe acrobat XI free download full version crack keygen activatoradobe photoshop cs5 free download full version crack keygen activatoradobe frameMaker free download full version crack keygen activatoredius pro 8 free download full version crack keygen activatoradobe inCopy cc free download full version crack keygen activator
  9. sky james | Feb 16, 2019
    I appreciate everything you have added to my knowledge base.Admiring the time and effort you put into your blog and detailed information you offer.Thanks for sharing amazing information !!!!!! Please keep up sharing.Staff Leasing BGC
  10. jsa asas | Feb 16, 2019
    I really like your blog. Great article. It's most evident, people should learn before they are able to voyance par téléphone
  11. jsa asas | Feb 15, 2019
    Excellent .. Amazing .. I’ll bookmark your blog and take the feeds also…I’m happy to find so many useful info here in the post, we need work out more techniques in this regard, thanks for sharing.  Find Rehab Centers
  12. jsa asas | Feb 14, 2019
    I think this is one of the most significant information for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But should remark on some general things, www.prodigitalweb.com
  13. Anna Sanders | Feb 14, 2019
    The home front has good maids for general house cleaning Elkhart back then.
  14. seo | Feb 13, 2019
    I take in some new stuff from it as well, a debt of gratitude is in order for sharing your data.  Tax Investigation Accountants
  15. seo | Feb 13, 2019
    I truly adored perusing your online journal. It was exceptionally all around wrote and simple to undertand. Not at all like extra online journals I have perused which are truly not tht great. I likewise discovered your posts extremely fascinating. Truth be told subsequent to understanding, I needed to go demonstrat to it to my companion and he ejoyed it also!  Tax Investigation Accountants
  16. Farhan | Feb 12, 2019
    I think this is an informative post and it is very useful and knowledgeable. therefore. I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article. https://learnhowblogging.com
  17. sky james | Feb 12, 2019
    This is very interesting content! I have thoroughly enjoyed reading your points and have come to the conclusion that you are right about many of them. You are great.yoga teacher training london uk
  18. sky james | Feb 12, 2019
    This is look interesting topic that inspire me a lot so as a benefit for this i will share your post on other relevant blogs to gain more appreciation. Many thanks.Thanks for sharing amazing information !!!!!! Please keep up sharing.Mountain bikes for sale
  19. jsa asas | Feb 11, 2019
    Such a very useful article. Very interesting to read this article.I would like to thank you for the efforts you had made for writing this awesome article. web bokep
  20. rimsha | Feb 10, 2019
    A very awesome blog post. We are really grateful for your blog post. You will find a lot of approaches after visiting your post. I was exactly searching for. Thanks for such post and please keep it up bollywood celebs
  21. Zack Smith | Feb 10, 2019
    Wonderful article. Fascinating to read. I love to read such an excellent article. Thanks! It has made my task more and extra easy. Keep rocking. 안전공원
  22. farhan | Feb 10, 2019
    You have done a great job on this article.  It’s very readable and highly intelligent.  You have even managed to make it understandable and easy to read.  You have some real writing talent. Thank you. http://seo-omaha.net
  23. sky james | Feb 09, 2019
    This is my first time i visit here. I found so many interesting stuff in your blog especially its discussion. From the tons of comments on your articles, I guess I am not the only one having all the enjoyment here keep up the good work..Torque Tester
  24. Farhan | Feb 09, 2019
    Its a great pleasure reading your post.Its full of information I am looking for and I love to post a comment that "The content of your post is awesome" Great work. web design longview
  25. eliza | Feb 09, 2019
    thanks for this usefull article, waiting for this article like this again. 먹튀사이트
  26. rimsha | Feb 09, 2019
    This is a great high resolution screen which you have shared for the users. Making a website is not an easy task but managing a good website is really a hard work. As far as this website is concerned, I am very happy. goldfisho
  27. Kamagra uk1 | Feb 09, 2019
    Great …Thanks for providing useful information….Use Kamagra and get more satisfaction from your sex life.
  28. jsa asas | Feb 08, 2019
    This is a great high resolution screen which you have shared for the users. Making a website is not an easy task but managing a good website is really a hard work. As far as this website is concerned, I am very happy. How to get digital signature
  29. jsa asas | Feb 06, 2019
    Hi there, I found your blog via Google while searching for such kinda informative post and your post looks very interesting for me. thekitchenofarunner.com
  30. Farhan | Feb 06, 2019
    Im no expert. but I believe you just made an excellent point. You certainly fully understand what youre speaking about. and I can truly get behind that.  Procurement construction material in China
  31. Farhan | Feb 05, 2019
    I love this blog!! The flash up the top is awesome!! alexa boost
  32. Farhan | Feb 05, 2019
    I think this is an informative post and it is very useful and knowledgeable. therefore. I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article. Office Build
  33. jsa asas | Feb 05, 2019
    Always so interesting to visit your site.What a great info, thank you for sharing. this will help me so much in my learning cara mendownload vidio bokep
  34. farhan | Feb 05, 2019
    I can’t imagine focusing long enough to research; much less write this kind of article.  You’ve outdone yourself with this material.  This is great content. gogoro冷排濾網
  35. Farhan | Feb 04, 2019
    I wanted to thank you for this great read!! I definitely enjoying every little bit of it I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff you post. wedding videography
  36. Farhan | Feb 04, 2019
    I recently found many useful information in your website especially this blog page. Among the lots of comments on your articles. Thanks for sharing. Accupuncture MK
  37. farhan | Feb 04, 2019
    this is really nice to read..informative post is very good to read..thanks a lot! Forest City Surplus Canada
  38. Taniya Khan | Feb 04, 2019
  39. jsa asas | Feb 03, 2019
    Our credit repair services work to fix past credit mistakes and verify credit report accuracy. Talk to a credit repair expert today!  penny stocks
  40. Farhan | Feb 02, 2019
    It is imperative that we read blog post very carefully. I am already done it and find that this post is really amazing. digital marketing agency
  41. Farhan | Feb 02, 2019
    Love what you're doing here guys. keep it up!.. Modular Data Center Infrastructure
  42. Farhan | Feb 02, 2019
    Its a great pleasure reading your post.Its full of information I am looking for and I love to post a comment that "The content of your post is awesome" Great work. autogenes training online
  43. farhan | Feb 02, 2019
    Great survey, I'm sure you're getting a great response. game hacks and cheats
  44. Karishma Singh | Feb 01, 2019
  45. Georgette | Jan 31, 2019
    Adidas Store
    Pandora Rings Official Site
    Adidas Trainers Sale
    Asics Running Shoes For Men
    Louboutin
    Christian Louboutin Outlet
    Skechers Sneakers
    Air Max
    Adidas Sneakers For Men
    Adidas Outlet Online
    Nike Outlet
    Nike Outlet Store
    Ferragamo Shoes
    Nike Running Shoes
    Nike Running Shoes
    Adidas Original
    Adidas EQT Support Adv
    Nike Outlet Store Online Shopping
    Yeezy Boost
    Nike Shoes For Men
    Pandora Charm
    Balenciaga
    Adidas Originals Superstar
    Fila Shoes For Men
    Nike Outlet Online
    Yeezy Shoes
    Pandora Outlet
    Nike Factory Store
    Pandora Bracelets
    Pandora
    Adidas Originals Superstar
    Red Bottoms Louboutin
    Lebron James Shoes
    Red Bottom Heels
    Adidas NMD
    Nike Clearance Store
    Pandora Jewelry Store
    Adidas Superstar
    Goyard Bags
    Ferragamo
    Nike Store
    Adidas Sneakers
    Nike Cortez
    Pandora Jewelry
    Nike Factory Store Online
    Air Max 98
    Christian Louboutin Outlet
    Nike Sneakers
    Nike Shoes
    Adidas Shoes
    Womens Nike Shoes
    Pandora Jewelry
    Christian Louboutin Outlet
    New Nike Shoes 2019
    Fitflop Sandals
    Nike UK
    Timberland Outlet
    Asics Shoes Outlet
    Nike Cortez
    Valentino
    Pandora
    Ultra Boost Adidas
    Nike Outlet Store Online Shopping
    Adidas Shoes
    Nike Trainers
    Pandora Charms Sale Clearance
    Nike Shoes
    Pandora Bracelet
    Adidas Outlet
    Adidas EQT
    Pandora Charms Outlet
    Nike Factory Outlet
    Nike Running Shoes For Women
    Timberland Shoes
    Yeezy Shoes
    Nike Trainers Sale
    Christian Louboutin
    Adidas NMD xr1
    Air Max 270
    Nike Clearance
    Christian Louboutin
    Pandora Canada
    Nike Sneakers
    Pandora Jewelry Official Site
    Goyard Bag
    Jordan Sneakers
    Air Max 2019
    Yeezy Boost 350 V2
    Pandora Canada
    Yeezys
    Nike Air Max 720
    Cheap Basketball Shoes
    Yeezy Supply
    Timberland Boots Outlet
    Pandora Rings Official Site
    Adidas UK
    Nike Shoes
    Yeezy Sneakers
    Pandora Charm Bracelet
    Jordan Shoes
    Adidas Shoes
    Adidas Stan Smith
    NMDS
    Pandora Jewelry
    Valentino
    Yeezys
    Golden Goose Sneakers
    Goyard Bag
    Ferragamo Belt
    Puma Shoes
    Fjallraven Kanken
    Nike Air Max
    Pandora Jewelry
    Pandora Jewelry
    Jordan 11
    Hermes Belt Men
    Longchamp Bags
    Yeezy 500 Black
    Nike Outlet Store
    Adidas Outlet UK
    Adida
    Nike Outlet
    Nike Outlet Store
    Adidas Shoes For Men
    Adidas Outlet Online
    Yeezy
    Yeezy Shoes
    Adidas Yeezy
    Red Bottom Shoes For Women
    Adidas Shoes
    Christian Louboutin Sale
    Yeezy
    NMD
    Pandora Outlet
    Nike Outlet Store Online Shopping
    Timberland Work Boots
    Off White Air Force 1
    Nike Sneakers
    Nike Air Max 270 Men
    Nike Air Max 720
    Nike Store Online
    Nike Air Max 95 Essential
    Lebron 16
    Nike Factory
    Louboutin Outlet
    Pandora Charms Sale Clearance
    Pandora Black Friday
    Nike KD
    Pandora Charms
    Adidas NMD
    Michael Jordan Shoes
    Ultra Boost
    Vans
    Nike Outlet Store
    Christian Louboutin Outlet
    Nike Outlet Store Online Shopping
    Nike Outlet Store
    NMD Adidas
    Ultra Boost Adidas
    Off White Converse
    Asics
    Nike Sneakers
    Adidas
    Balenciaga
    Louboutin Shoes
    Ultra Boost
    Adidas Superstars
    Nike UK
    Timberland Shoes
    Asics Sneakers
    Nike Clearance
    Adidas Stan Smith Sneakers
    Nike Sneakers
    Christian Louboutin shoes
    Pandora Charms
    Outlet Moncler
    Asics Shoes
    Pandora Earrings
    Nike Clearance Outlet UK
    Yeezy Shoes
    Adidas Stores
    Asics
    Puma Shoes Outlet
    New Nike Shoes 2019
    Asics Shoes
    Adidas NMD
    Timberland Boots
    Nike Air Max 95
    Air Max 270 Men
    Jordan 11
    Nike Air Max 97
    Adidas Superstars
    Hermes Birkin Handbags
    Yeezy 500
    Asics Running Shoes For Men
    Adidas NMD R2
    Nike Running Shoes
    Yeezy
    Nike Shoes For Women
    Womens Nike Shoes
    Air Max 98
    Nike Shoes For Men
    Pandora Necklaces
    Adidas Ultra Boost
    Air Max 2019
    Nike Factory Store
    Adidas Shoes
    New Nike
    Nike Outlet Store Online Shopping
    Nike Store
    Nike Basketball Shoes
    Jordan Shoes
    Fila Sneakers
    KD 11
    Nike Air Max 270 Flyknit
    Adidas Yeezy
    Yeezy Boost 350
    Red Bottom Shoes For Women
    Adidas Trainers
    Asics Outlet Store
    Air Max 2019
    Fjallraven Kanken Backpack
    Pandora Bracelets
    Adidas Factory
    Valentino Shoes
    Fjallraven Kanken Backpack
    Cheap Nike Shoes
    Airmax 270
    Fila Disruptor
    Adidas Yeezy
    Pandora UK
    Nike Air Max 97
    Pandora Jewelry
    Air Max 720
  46. jsa asas | Jan 29, 2019
    Thanks for taking the time to discuss that, I feel strongly about this and so really like getting to know more on this kind of field. Do you mind updating your blog post with additional insight? It should be really useful for all of us. ragnarok private server
  47. Katina | Jan 29, 2019
    Adidas NMD Adidas Shoes For Women Birkenstock Outlet Birkenstock Pandora Charms Outlet Red Bottom Shoes For Women Vans Shoes Nike Air Max 270 Pandora Jewelry Lebron 15 Shoes Kate Spade Outlet Pandora Birkenstock Moncler Christian Louboutin Shoes Balenciaga Jimmy Choo Shoes Christian Louboutin Pandora Bracelet Air Jordan 4 Retro Louboutin shoes Adidas Yeezy Curry Shoes Cheap Pandora Charms Nike Outlet Air Jordan Nike Air More Uptempo Air Jordans James Harden shoes Adidas NMD XR1 Jordan Win Like 96 Longchamp Outlet Online ECCO Shoes For Women Lebron 15 Birkenstock Outlet Ferragamo Belt Fitflop Sale Clearance Moncler Jackets Pandora Jewelry Official Site Basketball Shoes Nike Clearance Store Christian Louboutin Shoes Pandora Charms Clearance Pandora Jewelry Official Site Nike Air Force 1 Goyard Handbags Kate Spade Outlet Timberland Outlet Kate Spade New York Outlet Pandora Bracelets Nike Air Max Ralph Lauren Outlet Online Nike Mens Shoes Off White Nike Presto Nike Vapormax Plus Nike Air Force One Nike Roshe Air Max 90 Adidas Yeezy Boost Jordan Retro 11 Pandora Jewelry Air Jordan 12 Nike Air Max Adidas Superstar Red Bottom Shoes Yeezy Boost 350 Pandora Canada Jewelry Pandora Jewelry Christian Louboutin Shoes Jordan 11 Low Adidas NMD Nike Roshe Yeezy Shoes Michael Kors Outlet Jordan 8 Pandora Jewelry Outlet Pandora Jewelry Official Site Nike Outlet Pandora Charms Pandora Rings Fitflop Pandora Official Site Nike Cortez Men Birkenstock Outlet Christian Louboutin Outlet Christian Louboutin Shoes Pandora Bracelets Christian Louboutin Shoes Skechers Shoes Pandora Charms Sale Pandora Official Site Adidas Outlet Pandora Charms Nike Outlet Store Nike Womens Shoes Polo Ralph Lauren Outlet Online Yeezy Curry 5 Shoes Nike Outlet Air Max 270 Air Max Longchamp Handbags Fjallraven Kanken Backpack Pandora Rings Official Site Pandora Louboutin Shoes Kate Spade Handbags Nike Outlet Kyrie Shoes Balenciaga Triple S Adidas Yeezy Shoes Nike Shoes Yeezy Boost 350 Air Max Plus Nike Outlet Store Yeezy Pandora Ring Air Max 98 Pandora Jewelry Christian Louboutin Jordan Retro 10 Ralph Lauren Outlet Pandora Outlet Timberland Boots Vapormax Air Max 95 Ferragamo Shoes Moncler Outlet Kate Spade Bags Harden Shoes Michael Kors Outlet Air Jordan 11 Nike Shox Nike Clearance Outlet Ferragamo Outlet Online Adidas Outlet Isabel Marant Fitflops Sale Clearance Jordan Retros North Face Jackets Jordan Shoes Retro Lebron Shoes Adidas Stan Smith Pandora Disney Charms Jordan Sneakers Air Force 1 Pandora Charms Retro Jordan Soccer Shoes Pandora Jewelry Charms Nike Air Max Pandora Nike Shoes Fitflop Shoes Cheap Jordan Shoes Nike Air Force 1 High Skechers NMD Adidas Jordan 11 For Sale Nike Epic React Nike Outlet Store Burberry Handbags Moncler Jacket Pandora Charm Bracelet Pandora Charms Outlet Pandora Bracelets Goyard Handbags Fenty Puma Birkenstock Sandals Pandora Bracelets Longchamp Pandora Jewelry Pandora Charms Outlet Moncler Outlet Air Max 270 Flyknit Kyrie Irving Shoes Ralph Lauren UK Adidas Yeezy Nike Huarache Nike Air Vapormax Nike Air Max Valentino Shoes Adidas NMD XR1 Fitflop Shoes Yeezy New Jordans Pandora Bracelet Hermes Birkin Pandora Jewelry Nike Air Vapormax Adidas Yeezy Boost 350 Moncler Outlet Pandora Jewelry Official Site Black Friday Moncler Jackets Vans Jordan 11 Space Jam Fitflop Sale Clearance Pandora Outlet Pandora Charms Pandora Bottega Veneta Handbags Pandora Charms Nike Vapor Max Birkenstock Sandals Jordan Shoes Nike Store Nike Sneakers Adidas Shoes For Men Birkenstock outlet Christian Louboutin Shoes Kyrie Irving Shoes Nike Air Max Adidas NMD Ralph Lauren Kyrie 4 Shoes Moncler Outlet Air Max 270 Kate Spade Air Jordan 11 Ralph Lauren Outlet Online Goyard Handbags Kate Spade Christian Louboutin Shoes Air Jordan Retro 14 Balenciaga Air Jordan 9 Ralph Lauren Kanken Backpack Kate Spade Kyrie 4 Yeezy Shoes Balenciaga ECCO Shoes Nike Roshe One Pandora Official Site North Face Outlet Birkenstock Shoes For Women KD Shoes Pandora Jewelry Pandora Jewelry Adidas NMD R1 Red Bottom Shoes Ed Hardy Nike Outlet Pandora Adidas Yeezy Pandora Jewelry MBT Shoes Jordan Sneakers Moncler UK Pandora Adidas Ultra Boost Moncler Official Site Jordan 11 Red Timberlad Boots Air Jordan 11 Pandora Jewelry Pandora Jewelry Nike Air Max Valentino Red Bottoms Louboutin Puma Shoes New Jordans Pandora Jewelry Official Site James Harden shoes
  48. tams | Jan 29, 2019
    I needed to thank you for this phenomenal read!! I unquestionably adored each and every piece of it. I have you bookmarked your site to look at the new stuff you post.  Tax Investigation Self Employed
  49. tams | Jan 29, 2019
    Howdy, I discover perusing this article a delight. It is to a great degree supportive and fascinating and all that much anticipating perusing a greater amount of your work..  Tax Investigation Self Employed
  50. farhan | Jan 29, 2019
    I think that thanks for the valuabe information and insights you have so provided here. youtube promotion

    Leave a comment

    The photographs show just how varied the work that women undertook was: and the variety of new skills that therefore had to the taught and obtained. This new workforce, alongside the remaining male workers, not only delivered munitions but also worked on other weapons and in back offices and research roles. Both at home and on the Continent women worked in forestry, medicine and as drivers.

    Click here to read the full paper and discussions. Or here to read about the Royal Small Arms Factory in Enfield.

    Views from the Home Front

    Oliver Heaviside, seen here, became a telegraph clerk for the Anglo-Danish Telegraph Company, later the Great Northern Telegraph Company, in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1868. After 1874, he began work on a series of problems in telegraphy and signal transmission using experimentation, mathematics and vector analysis. He had long and famous disagreements with Sir William Henry Preece over the introduction of inductance to long distance communication cables to improve the transmission of signals, amongst others and was an active letter writer. Heaviside continued his correspondence with leading engineers and scientists throughout the war. They contain commentary on the war, including personal views.

    Poisonous gases were one area of debate, between Heaviside and the Oxford University lecturer Dr CV Burton. In 1915 Burton went to work in the Royal Aircraft Factory, Department H (Physics) at Farnborough; he was killed in an explosion there in 1917. His views on the use of poisonous gases offer a window into how people at home felt about aggressive methods at the front:

    “If it is merely a question of dirty tricks played on occasion, like white flag treachery, we needn’t follow the methods of the enemy; but when methods are resorted to which give an advantage to the user and may be or paramount military importance, we can’t afford to fight such a one-sided battle, whatever degree of barbarity may be involved. Don’t you agree? One needn’t be vindictive enough to choose a specially painful way when more humane means are available, but I’m afraid any gases which can be used in sufficient quantities to be effective will cause fearful suffering. We can’t help that: the alternative is to let ourselves to be beaten, because we are too considerate to fight the enemy with his own weapons; which would mean that the chlorine-fiends would rule the earth”.

    Ironically it was phosgene (used as a chemical weapon) which killed him. Burton would also share anecdotes of his wartime work and experiences:

    “One of our pilots had a thrilling adventure the other day. He started from Farnborough to take a new type of machine to the front: it is about 1 ½ hours flight. As he was nearing the French coast, in driving rain, the engine suddenly seized, the propeller smashed with the sudden stoppage, & bits of the engine flew about, some of them penetrating the wings. He could see no land, and took off his coat and waistcoat in readiness for a plunge into the foaming sea (it was very rough). Then he caught sight of a blacking object that looked like Boulogne pier & made for it;... say 120 m.p.h. The ambulance people rushed out to his assistance, but he had managed to turn up-wind, and alight in a field without further mishap.”

    Another correspondent was George Frederick Charles Searle, he informed Heaviside how Burton died:

    “Burton was killed about 15 or 16 months ago at the Royal Aircraft ’Establishment’ (late ‘Factory’). He was doing something with Phosgene, a very poisonous gas. This is easily liquefied and he had a ‘syphon’ (like a soda water syphon) of the liquid. The bottle burst (it was not at high pressure). Burton got the stuff all over him. He seemed at first as if he had just recovered but a few hours later died.” Tragically, Searle goes on to say, ‘Mrs Burton a day or two later took poison and died also.”

    Through letters we get a glimpse of how people, indirectly, involved in the war felt and saw the conflict: Burton offers a pragmatic view which may seem shocking in today's context; he also though offers a 'fun' boys own adventure story, which suggests an element of enthusiasm for the excitement of war.


    Heaviside
    Oliver Heaviside (1850-1925). Read his biography in Resources.


    Burton’s last letter to Heaviside (he died 4 weeks later) dated 30 December 1916
    Burton’s last letter to Heaviside (he died 4 weeks later) dated 30 Dec 1916.
    Credits/footnotes:

    Ellis papers and image,
    NAEST 155/3 IET Archives.

    Images:

    Factory workers, IMechE Archive except for the following used with thanks to Tyne and Wear Archive for image A7774/2 Lathe operator at Heaton Works, 1914-1918 (first in gallery) and to Imperial War Museum for images Q 30040 Women workers at the National Shell Filling Factory, Chilwell and Q106565 Members of the Women’s Forestry Corps in Sussex.


    Heaverside portrait and letter excerpt, IET Archive.