Infrastructure was a key component of wartime logistics: aiding the movement of personnel, weaponry, post and supplies. This fed in not only to conflict aims and needs but to more personal needs; the postal service boosted morale by giving troops a vital link to their loved ones. Engineers were crucial to infrastructure, by creating the supply lines on which the armed forces depended on.

Gun Wagons
The railways were important during the War for supply line reasons including the redistribution of munitions and heavy arms, as well as of troops, medical staff and general supplies. Both the Great Western (GWR) and Midland Railways (MR) used specific gun wagons for the moving of guns.

The GWR used Pollen B wagon sets 48979-48982, 48999-48900 to carry 12-inch BL guns Marks 8-10 for the moving of heavy guns, 45-58 tons. The MR used wagon set 9696 carrying 12, 13.5, 14, and 15 inch guns, these were even heavier at 67-97 tons. Technical drawings for both companies include side elevations showing basic dimensions, weights, and axle loads. Guns were moved both within Britain and on the Continent to position them for battle or strategic defence. The largest artillery was actually held by the Royal Navy for their dreadnaughts, the 'monster' guns moved by MR were most likely for this purpose.

Of course, dreadnaughts were not an option on the Front, but their guns were deployed against the concrete fortified German positions near the Somme and along the Hindenburg line. At first they put the gun on a wheel mount and attempted to secure it in place; advanced recoil mechanisms allowed for some success but deployment was still slow and cumbersome. The guns were moved by a tractor, this was slow and carried the risk of enemy capture.

Rail presented the perfect transport and firing platform for land-based naval ordnance. The gun could be moved relatively quickly along the rail system and the recoil could be dispersed by allowing the carriage to hurtle down the tracks (sometimes up to 100 feet). In some cases, a piece of curved siding was actually used to aim the gun. These guns could fire up to thirty miles and were capable of reaching far into the enemy’s rear positions. The culmination of the rail gun was the massive French Schneider 520mm howitzer. The shells this gun fired were over 24 inches in diameter and weighed 3,100 pounds. They were fused in such a way as to allow the shell to penetrate its target before detonation. Luckily for all involved, the war ended before they could be brought into service.

As well as rail becoming a platform for the direct deployment of guns, it was also used to transport guns and weapons of all sizes to where they were required. Entrenched lines meant that routes and workflow methods could be honed. As the Engineers Office charts of the South East & Chatham Railway show, they had to plan which lines were suitable for the carrying of which rolling stock and weaponry- the sheer weight of the haul being a prime consideration because of the risk collapse to the lines.



Book 1, Midland Railway

Book 1, Midland Railway

by User Not Found | 24 Jul, 2014

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  1. Admin | Jun 27, 2017
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Even once I figurative it all out, though, the portion fell far short of expectations (and it’s own claims, frankly). I see in other countries such as USA, Canada and places in Europe it is becoming part of women’s daily life which is something that really makes me smile. Also would it be a good idea to ransom a cup of a brand called as “Female Cup” or any other Non Branded cup from E-bay which acknowledge to be made of Medical Grade Silicon and are FDA approved. So when you remove it before Bonesville, it could make for, er, a rougher trip.While I personally know of virgins (or so they claim, teenagers can be deceitful with what they tell us adults) who do use menstrual cupful, they all did so after using tampons. I have to trim the pillar off totally as it just poked me no matter how short it was, so I usually hold the bottom (even to the centrical) of the cupful to break the suction and contest it out while bearing down. That is emphatically NOT what happened. • If you are worn a size B and find it difficult to insert and/or feel any discomfort during habit, then shift to bulk A. I’d also intimate securement it wet so it slides in more easily. They have the pretty turquoise cup I’ve been wanting! Just perfect my first day with Lena and I am in love! Fits like a glove and none of the issues I was having with the Diva. I loved the judgment of only dealing with it twice a Time. Also for a better “draintrap” I will insert, get it seated then do a imperfectly insinuate so that it is “sealed” against the vaginal wall. This year suggested a Lena Cup and I was stoked. I can only speculate, but I expect that you will have trouble with a menstrual cup if you are goods difficulty using tampons.I have this problem with my Keeper sometimes. A menstrual cup is a feminine hygiene product that can be used instead of pads or tampons. What is the Diva Cup?, How do you remove a menstrual cup?, What is a menstrual cup for?, How do you use menstrual cups?, menstrual cup dangers, menstrual cup brands, menstrual cup reviews,disposable menstrual cup, lunette menstrual cup, menstrual cup where to buy, menstrual cup walmart, diva cup price, buy menstrual cup australia, menstrual cup new zealand, diva cup review, diva cup model 1 vs 2, diva cup shoppers drug mart, diva cup canada coupon, menstrual cup walmart, menstrual cup uk, diva cup walmart canada, where to buy menstrual cup in store,in what stores can you find a menstrual cup, What is a lunette Cup?, What is a menstrual cup?, What does a mooncup do?, What is a Luna Cup?,  Once inserted into the vaginal canal, it collects monthly gas.Men, you might want to move along now. For me FLEX doesn’t leak, and I assume’t feel it at all. Size ASize B You have not given birthYou have fixed birth vaginally You have fixed birth by CaesareanYou have a weaker pelvic floor Each cup is propose for maximum comfort and should not be felt when worn. As for feeling the sharpness on the way out, I don’t savvy how that could happen, that it’s because you didn’t break the suction before pulling it out or something like that. To giv a menstrual cup, or a Femme Kit, to a girl in need, please visit Femme's Holiday Giving Campaign.I had been reading going the menstrual cupful for a few days and really feel convinced about tyring menstrual cups out. I make sure I always have some moisture before doing this or it will hurt (like something sticking to your skin), even if it’s just some spout water before I insert. I am 28, married and no babies. Certainly every traveling lady should read it — so forward it your traverse-loving female friends.Kim Rosas April 27, 2017 at 2:41 pm Hi Sofia, we have positively be making small tweaks to the enigma and the results it gives supported on a number of things (embody audio feedback from dozens of people who have taken the quiz that are experience cup users) so it looks like you took before and after those vary. If you feel any discomfort, you may emergency to change your bulk. For me, I find sitting / squatting the best position to insert the cup. It was a time of silent for having their period meant they were not pregnant, therefore not giving a new life so they were in complete meditation. If you look into it, you will find information on how a woman’s period was almost sacred in antique cultures. Thank you for the appalling hoax! ReplyMenstrualcupreviewers.net has you covered. Here’s what you need to know:This is the limit I use, just try to relax while you’re inserting it. Now I bear it every period and I love it! Be sure to give the portion you choose a chance, no impression, bit by coin keep trying it.Tara May 11, 2017 at 11:26 am After I had a baby, I wasn’t loving my six 2 divacup like I loved my size 1. I find that sometimes after insertion it won’t artless correctly so I will either pull it down or push it up a little further (I feel like sometimes it’s not in the regular spot). I was nervous about getting it out, but I can. Just wondering which adjust i should go for. It does escape sometimes when it flow so I always use the cloth pantyliner with it, so that’s like the best combo. It is important for men to get involved on these matters and stop trying to avoid it. ” - Christina, OklahomaKelli shares a reflection about no longer dreading her period or document animation around it, but instead, just floating with it. Also try different positions, alike sitting on the toilet seat, squatting or putting one leg up. It's summer-tree. Just one notion Shannon, menstruation is not gross at all and no, men are not more successful than us not to have it. No pads, no pantyliners. Menstrual cups are the best thing to management your period safely, cheaply and in an environmentally friendly way. We do not have a wide market in Mexico basically because the tampon/pads brands would be highly affected so they keep it silent. Well this is just a thought I have with all the respect towards your ideas and all the women in this court, just a essential opinion given from what I have studied and researched. Silicone is non-absorbent, so it respects the pH and flora balance of the vagina.Tina Siegel February 4, 2015 at 3:35 pm # I’m glad your experience been better than mine. I kept trimming the gleam shorter and shorter until I ultimately trimmed it right off. I would suggest that you try it during shower and when you are menstruating so that it’s much easier to insert it in. So I had decided to try the other type of fold and now find that the 7 fold is the best. If you’d like you can email admin@putacupinit.com with a few more details so that we can help. This list contains large product reviews and information on the leading menstrual cups that offer you a wide-array of details- which will not only save you opportunity and endeavor, but also assist you in making the most appropriate menstrual cup choice possible.Size is mainly determined by anatomy, childbearing history, and pelvic floor validity. Greetings!Reply lesssslie January 28, 2016 at 4:33 pm I use MCUK. Since a woman’s body undergoes many changes during life, both Lily Cup™ and Lily Cup™ Compact are available in two different bulk. We still stand behind the previous results and Lunette is a strange portion, it’s actually the one I have used the most with best terminate. I was initially very enthusiastic about the cup, even though – resembling you, and everyone else who uses it – there was a learning curve. I have a sluggish flow, which is why I indigence to try it. Women used to connect themselves to the energy of the moon and were led by its appearance. It is a natural phase in a woman’s life and one of the most important times for us. Also once it is inside, make sure you relax all of your muscles fully and push it up a bit higher, that’ll make sure it’s in a good position. If you are tense and nervous it will be harder and unpleasant to insert. It is hypoallergenic, latex-free, phthalate-free, and contains null toxins. • If you are using a size A and experience that your cup is not securely collecting your menstrual flow and/or experience continual spotting, then change to size B. I cant find any reëxamination of “Female Cup” so little paranoid if it would be worth giving it a try. Finally got it in, and yet it kept ‘slipping out’ and leaked. We have investigated, researched, and comprised a list of the top 10 menstrual cups currently manufactured and solary. Thanks!Tampons absorb extra juices tiny ducts in your vaginal walls release when you're sexually aroused. I’ve gone back to tampons – they’re just much easier.“ I’m a karate instructor and I wear a white consonant. • If you by and large have a heavy flow, we recommend you use the normal Lily Cup™, which has a higher efficiency. How sad it is to see so uncomprehensive men around. It was estimate a time of introspection and ended intercourse with themselves. We probable the Lunette because it’s shorter than the Diva Cup. At first i thought, “this is precisely not for me” forwhy it HURT horribly to full while wearing it. Do all the things.I’ve been worn Mooncup for a few years now and absolutely love it. Sometimes I have to removal it and reinsert when I can’t get it right.Femme International's Feminine Health Management Program distributes menstrual cups, along with the essential education and hygiene materials to schoolgirls in East Africa, helping them remain safe, health and in school -- every age of the month. It is sad to know that this patriarcal world has made us think it is gross and something terrible to live with. Medical-grade silicone is an uncompromising-safe, inert important that is developed particularly for medical proposes. A double menstrual revelry is slightly bigger than a tampon. It’s usually made with medical grade silicone, is flexible and shaped copy a blossom that’s open on one end. Keep practicing with different types of conceal until you find one that suits you. So I kept trying and afflictive, still the same with no success, UNTIL I decided to change the type of envelop. But that said, you also may find this menstrual cup review salutary for your girlfriend or wife. But will be soon design for a love. I have to empty my cup six to eight times a age, and it’s a difficult, confuse process (distinctly in a public washroom). I had no problem inserting it until one Time I seemed to have problem inserting it EVERY TIME! I don’t know what happened, nothing changed, still used the same envelop, still as mitigate, but it honest didn’t work. ReplyIn our opinion, every single females who is menstruating needs a menstrual cup. I used to use ‘punch down’ fold which is the most popular and easiest to insert it in and yet, that’s what was causing the problem as it doesn’t obvious fully most of the time. You may have answered questions that lead us to expect you have a very low cervix which is why you got Meluna this season around. I am very excited and interested in buying one and getting used to it asap. 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    Drawings and charts for the movement of guns on British railways.


    British Pathe film, Giant Gun on the Railway 1914-1918.

    Admiralty

    Electrical Engineering Departments were first created by the Admiralty in 1903; Charles Henry Wordingham was made Superintending Electrical Engineer with two Assistants of whom William McClelland was one, the quotes are his. Electrical Engineers were appointed at each Dockyard. The war brought with it challenges for the fitting and maintenance of the fleet:

    “Early in the 1914-18 War, Admiral Sir Percy Scott, a well-known gunnery expert, walked into my room one morning, and, with his pencil drew on my blotting pad, an outline of a ship saying, “that’s the hull, that’s the tower; that’s the control room below; we want to control all turret guns from the top; if that is shot away, we then control from the room below; if that becomes flooded or damaged, we then control from a certain turret; any damaged parts must be capable of being isolated quickly with switch-over arrangements. Now McClelland, how long will it take to wire 30 first line ships at sea, the ships to remain at an hour’s notice for action?"

    McClelland's response was ignored, he was given 6 months and told to make arrangements to get the dockyard workmen to the Fleet. When the Fleet went to sea, the workmen often went with them; some were in action and were specially commended by the Commander in Chief.

    HMS Invincible, the fast Battle-Cruiser was urgently needed. She was under refit, her guns removed, and electrically she was nearly stripped. The extent of the electrical work involved was such that the Electrical Engineering Department could not complete the ship concurrently with other departments. Labour was not available in the dockyards. "The First Sea Lord said that, if it were a question of men, we should get them where we liked and how we liked, paying what was necessary, and if anyone say ‘nay’, that person should be referred to him, but without any doubt whatsoever, the ship must leave on the date given"He attached heavy penalties for any individual or Department failing to meet targets. Adverts were placed and over 200 men were found in a few days. Invincible left the dockyard on time; in the Falklands, she arrived just in time to catch and sink the German ships, the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. "Thus the Electrical Engineering Departments got through the 1914-1918 War, by sheer hard work and determination".

    New designs of ships, new construction and maintenance seemed unending; senior staff were engaged with all sorts of new electrical problems almost daily, they were much worried by the constant pressure and over-work. As an indication of the magnitude of the tasks, the number of electrical refits of ships was 48,630; the organisation for that one item, with its enormous supplies of materials, electrical machinery, and equipment from all over the country, had to be created without any previous experience of prolonged war in a comparatively new industry. The smooth and rapid expansion was made possible by the recruitment of suitable junior officers from the dockyards, who worked very efficiently.

    Sir Oswyn Murray Letter P1
    Letter to McClelland from Sir Oswyn Murray, Permanent Secretary of the Admiralty (the head of the Admiralty Civil Service in 1917) regarding his war work.


    Bridges

    Engineers played a vital role in moving troops, supplies and equipment. At the beginning of the War, the British Army did not have specialist material for building heavy bridges, nor the technical intelligence to be able to work out what might be required. The earliest forms of equipment bridging were based on pontoons which continued to be useful carrying guns and light equipment across rivers but the introduction of mechanical transport resulted in a large increase of axle load and the need to develop bridges to take heavier loads.

    The first need for heavy bridges was over the River Aisne on 13 September 1914, when the retreating German army destroyed the Pont Saint Waast leaving the allies unable to follow. The Royal Engineers built several pontoon bridges over the next few weeks followed by a heavy wooden girder bridge, the Pont des Anglais, at Sousson. The bridge was built under enemy fire and using any available materials including floorboards from local houses; it took too long to build resulting in a demand for steel spans to be sent.

      The first British equipment bridge was called the Inglis Portable Military Bridge (Light Type) invented by Sir Charles Inglis. Although the spans were invented in 1909 whilst Inglis was involved with the Cambridge University Officer Training Corps, they were first used as a self-contained portable bridge during WWI. Inglis was commissioned into the Royal Engineers in 1914; in1916 he was put in charge of bridge design and supply at the War Office. The first Inglis bridge consisted of pyramidal bays 8ft square created by 8ft long steel tubes connected by specially designed fittings, not unlike modern scaffolding.  It was designed to carry infantry in single file over a 120ft span and was easily transported  requiring little specialist training to construct.  At the first demonstration in France, a 108ft span was thrown across a canal in 13 minutes by an untrained party of Army Service Corps. On 28 September 1918 200 sappers from the Royal Engineers built a 108 ft span bridge over the Canal du Nord at Marquion in twelve and a half construction hours over several days whilst under fire.

      Although the Inglis Bridge was the best military bridge of the time, being fast to construct and carrying heavy loads, its tubular steel construction made it expensive and slow to manufacture. The Hopkins Bridge designed by Captain Hopkins, Royal Engineers, was a cheaper alternative. This bridge used conventional steel girders bolted together but the bolts meant construction was much slower than the Inglis. This meant that when speed was an issue, an Inglis bridge was often built which was then later replaced by a Hopkins bridge allowing the Inglis bridge to be re-used. The Hopkins bridge was designed to carry tanks. It consisted of steel Warren trusses and could be made in spans of multiples of 15ft. It was successful and a lorry bridge was designed, it was still at the experimental stage in 1918.

      The main disadvantage of girder bridges such as the Inglis and Hopkins was that they were not very adaptable; resulting in them often being stronger and heavier than required.  This problem led to the design of the Martel box girder bridge in 1925 which was used in the Second World War. These latter developments were as a direct result of engineers work from 1914 onwards.




      WWI Hopkins road bridge213
      Line drawing with technical details, Hopkins.


      Hopkins road bridge
      Hopkins road bridge being placed during the war.


      120ft Hopkins Bridge at Arques
      120ft Hopkins Bridge in use during the war at Arques.
      Credits/footnotes:

      ​'Giant Gun on Railway' film, British Pathe Archive.

      Images:

      Gun wagon charts/drawings, IMechE Archive.

      McClelland letter and portrait, IET Archive.

      Hopkins Bridge images, ICE Archive.