Infrastructure was a key component of wartime logistics: aiding the movement of personnel, weaponry, post and supplies. This fed in not only to conflict aims and needs but to more personal needs; the postal service boosted morale by giving troops a vital link to their loved ones. Engineers were crucial to infrastructure, by creating the supply lines on which the armed forces depended on.

Gun Wagons
The railways were important during the War for supply line reasons including the redistribution of munitions and heavy arms, as well as of troops, medical staff and general supplies. Both the Great Western (GWR) and Midland Railways (MR) used specific gun wagons for the moving of guns.

The GWR used Pollen B wagon sets 48979-48982, 48999-48900 to carry 12-inch BL guns Marks 8-10 for the moving of heavy guns, 45-58 tons. The MR used wagon set 9696 carrying 12, 13.5, 14, and 15 inch guns, these were even heavier at 67-97 tons. Technical drawings for both companies include side elevations showing basic dimensions, weights, and axle loads. Guns were moved both within Britain and on the Continent to position them for battle or strategic defence. The largest artillery was actually held by the Royal Navy for their dreadnaughts, the 'monster' guns moved by MR were most likely for this purpose.

Of course, dreadnaughts were not an option on the Front, but their guns were deployed against the concrete fortified German positions near the Somme and along the Hindenburg line. At first they put the gun on a wheel mount and attempted to secure it in place; advanced recoil mechanisms allowed for some success but deployment was still slow and cumbersome. The guns were moved by a tractor, this was slow and carried the risk of enemy capture.

Rail presented the perfect transport and firing platform for land-based naval ordnance. The gun could be moved relatively quickly along the rail system and the recoil could be dispersed by allowing the carriage to hurtle down the tracks (sometimes up to 100 feet). In some cases, a piece of curved siding was actually used to aim the gun. These guns could fire up to thirty miles and were capable of reaching far into the enemy’s rear positions. The culmination of the rail gun was the massive French Schneider 520mm howitzer. The shells this gun fired were over 24 inches in diameter and weighed 3,100 pounds. They were fused in such a way as to allow the shell to penetrate its target before detonation. Luckily for all involved, the war ended before they could be brought into service.

As well as rail becoming a platform for the direct deployment of guns, it was also used to transport guns and weapons of all sizes to where they were required. Entrenched lines meant that routes and workflow methods could be honed. As the Engineers Office charts of the South East & Chatham Railway show, they had to plan which lines were suitable for the carrying of which rolling stock and weaponry- the sheer weight of the haul being a prime consideration because of the risk collapse to the lines.



Book 1, Midland Railway

Book 1, Midland Railway

by User Not Found | 24 Jul, 2014

527 comments

Leave a comment
  1. 338sbobet | Sep 21, 2018
    I definitely enjoying every little bit of it. It is a great website and nice share. I want to thank you. Good job! You guys do a great blog, and have some great contents. Keep up the good workicetunaicetunaicetunaicetunaicetunaicetunawww.maindulu.comwww.maindulu.comwww.maindulu.comwww.maindulu.comwww.maindulu.com
  2. kem | Sep 21, 2018
  3. KendalRocha | Sep 21, 2018
    I agree. The railways is importand both during and after war. In Ukraine, our main transportation is train so I clearly knows that
     交友網站
  4. MarcoRocky | Sep 19, 2018
    Okay, let we see about the reality of engineering development. I think the development increase successfully.   sexy halloween costumes
  5. justinwoodworth58 | Sep 19, 2018

    It is appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I’ve read this post and if I could I desire to suggest you few interesting things or tips. Maybe you can write next articles referring to this topic. I desire to read more things about it.

    paket wisata derawan

    paket tour derawan

    paket wisata derawan terhits

  6. davidguguk2 | Sep 16, 2018
  7. dichvu vinaphone | Sep 15, 2018
    I have a fancy on your posts. I like to read articles. They are useful. I hope you can share more knowledge and tips with us. Thanks a million. I wait for next posts. They are my cup of tea. <a href="https://autoketing.com/email-with-love">free online autoketing</a>, <a href="https://apps.shopify.com/email-with-love">https://apps.shopify.com/email-with-love</a>
  8. ahmd | Sep 13, 2018
    I’m really impressed with your article, such great & useful knowledge you mentioned here http://huongdandatkeo.com/
  9. billu | Sep 13, 2018
    Howdy! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a gathering of volunteers and new exercises in a comparable claim to fame. Blog gave us supportive information to work. You have finished an astounding movement!https://nhacaisomot.com/nha-cai-cmd368-ap25.html
  10. billu | Sep 12, 2018
    I figure I am by all record not utilizing any techniques the principle a solitary having all the releasing up here! Continue doing amazing. I have been massiveness to influence something like this on my site and you to have given me an idea.https://nhacaisomot.com/188bet-link-188bet-link-vao-188bet-khong-bi-chan-a553.html
  11. dsds | Sep 10, 2018
    This is a great inspiring article.I am pretty much pleased with your good work.You put really very helpful information. Keep it up. Keep blogging. Looking to reading your next post. Social media
  12. senbokek | Sep 10, 2018
  13. CeoDuyRaTay | Sep 08, 2018

    Having your first child is probably as exciting as it is hard but that does not mean that you have to give up on your outdoorsman lifestyle. Keeping this in view, Mission critical designed a baby carrier that fits the adventurous needs of parents, especially dads.

    Mission Critical Baby Carrier and Its Safety

    Keeping Dads in Mind

    Mission Critical Baby Carrier & Daypack

    Mission Critical Baby Carrier Setup

    The Mission Critical Baby Carrier is a front-facing one of a kind tactical baby carrier that has the ability to hold 8-35 lbs in both sitting positions (front and back facing positions). This baby carrier exhibits a very simple and unique design that evenly distributes the weight. Attaching the Carrier do choi cho be trai Daypack to the Baby Carrier helps to minimize pain in neck, shoulder and the ergonomics ensure the best sitting position for the child.

    This baby carrier weighs only 36.50 oz and is made with 1000D nylon military grade fabric. It comes with YKK zipper and MOLLE webbing for accessory attachments. One added features of this baby carrier is the storable sun shield. Mission critical baby carriers also satisfy ASTM F2236-14 regulations for baby carriers.

    Mission Critical Baby Carrier

    Mission Critical Baby Carrier and Its Safety

    Safety is the number one priority when it comes to baby carrier and let me assure you that Mission Critical baby carriers have a lot going on in this regard. These carriers are constructed from military grade fabric. Its secure vest design gives hands-free control and freedom of mobility to the wearer while keeping the child safe and secure.

    Each of this carrier is JPMA certified which means that it has been extensively tested. It also exceeds ASTM regulation and standards for baby carriers. The fabric used in its construction is MIL-spec 1000D nylon, which is made to last for ages.

    Keeping Dads in Mind

    Mission critical baby carrier was specifically designed with dads in mind. While all the above safety features may sound like a lot to carry but it weighs only 35.50 oz. It has perforated foam padding for comfort and air mesh for extra breathability. So it is safe to say that along with complete safety, this carrier is just as much comfortable for both the wearer and the child.

    Mission Critical Baby Carrier

    Additional feature:

    One of the obvious advantages of Mission critical baby carrier is that it offers a MOLLE webbing on the front, which can be used to attach utilities pouches and accessories like wallet, phone, keys etc.

    The built-in sun shield which is stored inside a do choi cho be gai zipper pocket on the front is perfect for unplanned weather conditions. The sun shields easily be fastened by two buttons to provide shade for the little one.

    It has a removable liner, which can easily be taken out in case of accidents. It is also machine washable.

    Mission Critical Carrier Daypack: MOLLE webbing on the back plate of the carrier is probably the best advantage of this carrier. This MOLLE webbing is designed specifically for the mission-critical carrier daypack but can hold almost any accessory or modular/utility pouch. This daypack is an add-on accessory for the carrier and when combined it equally distributes the weight from front to back.

    Each of its carriers comes with a lifetime warranty and 30-day return so it is a no-risk purchase.

    Mission Critical Baby Carrier & Daypack

    Mission Critical Baby Carrier Setup

    Unlike other baby carriers, Mission critical baby carrier has a very simple design and it is very easy to use. With the help of just four steps, you can have your child perfectly in place.

    Step 1: Place the carrier on by opening the waist buckle, sliding the carrier over your shoulder and head. Secure it in place and move to step 2.

    Step 2: Unbuckle the shoulder buckles and the leg buckles and hoist the child in place.

    Step 3: Secure your child by buckling both the leg and the shoulder buckles back in place.

    Step 4: Ensure that the child’s legs are secure by pulling on the leg strap towards the lower front buttons. Now you are all set to go.

    Note: Make sure not to store too many items in the accessory pouch you attach to the front of the baby carrier since it disturbs the weight distribution from front to back.

  14. David Kala | Sep 08, 2018
    Thank you again for all the knowledge you distribute,Good post. I was very interested in the article, it's quite inspiring I should admit. I like visiting you site since I always come across interesting articles like this one.Great Job, I greatly appreciate that.Do Keep sharing! Regards !!! For Baby <a href="https://www.polesie-toys.com.vn">https://www.polesie-toys.com.vn</a> You See, Watching my Site please !!!
  15. DavidKale | Sep 08, 2018
    Thank you again for all the knowledge you distribute,Good post. I was very interested in the article, it's quite inspiring I should admit. I like visiting you site since I always come across interesting articles like this one.Great Job, I greatly appreciate that.Do Keep sharing! Regards !!! For Baby <a href="https://www.polesie-toys.com.vn"> </a> You See, Watching my Site please
  16. NC | Sep 07, 2018
    The country page of National Courier all around asked for paper is inclined towards revealing the issues of the key zone, focusing the lower standard pros and work zone class game plan of our general masses too with latest National news and the country over news round the clock. 
    https://digg.com/u/NationalCourier
  17. dsds | Sep 06, 2018
    I found your this post while searching for some related information on blog search...Its a good post..keep posting and update the information. PS PLus Codes 4 Free
  18. meningkatkan stamina pria | Sep 06, 2018
    racing is the first thing in my heart and i also love to join auto racing for the adrenalin rush- meningkatkan stamina pria
  19. luxury brands | Sep 06, 2018
    What i do not realize is actually how you’re not really much more well-liked than you might be now. You’re so intelligent. You realize thus significantly relating to this subject, produced me personally consider it from so many varied angles. Its like women and men aren’t fascinated unless it’s one thing to accomplish with Lady gaga! Your own stuffs outstanding. Always maintain it up! luxury brands
  20. poker338 | Sep 05, 2018
    This is a great inspiring article.I am pretty much pleased with your good work.You put really very helpful information. Keep it up. Keep blogging. Looking to reading your next post poker online 
  21. John | Sep 04, 2018
    It's surprising you aren't more popular given that you definitely possess the gift. https://kerala.ilotteryresults.com 
  22. Jean Garay | Sep 04, 2018
    Thanks for sharing this information. I really like your blog post very much. You have really shared a informative and interesting blog post with people..Best place to study medicine
  23. dsdsds | Sep 03, 2018
    I think this is an informative post and it is very useful and knowledgeable. therefore. I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article. numero voyance gratuite
  24. 7meter | Sep 01, 2018
    This truly is legitamite that it is possible to invest anywhere real robux is approved.7meter7meter7meter7meter7meter7meter7meter7meter7meter7meter7meter
  25. dsddsds | Aug 29, 2018
    Thanks you very much for sharing these links. Will definitely check this out.. water heaters
  26. dsdds | Aug 29, 2018
    The website is looking bit flashy and it catches the visitors eyes. Design is pretty simple and a good user friendly interface. debris cleaner
  27. 1123 | Aug 29, 2018
    It is very fun to play. Hope you will have more purchase stuffs with the soul coin. And can you make the piggy bank soul to be free to open cuz it seem more logic to me.  post-sale-emails-turn-new-buyers-lifelong-fans-part-2
  28. NC | Aug 27, 2018
    This zone contains all news identified with Pakistani VIPs and with everything contemplated as well. Masala, hot news identified with showbiz industry. Each coasting invigorate from beguilement. Isolating enormous name disappointments and breaking stories from Lollywood, Bollywood and Hollywood. 
    http://https://app.crayon.co/on/nationalcourier/
  29. NC | Aug 27, 2018
    This zone contains all news identified with Pakistani VIPs and with everything contemplated as well. Masala, hot news identified with showbiz industry. Each coasting invigorate from beguilement. Isolating enormous name disappointments and breaking stories from Lollywood, Bollywood and Hollywood. 
    http://www.everycatalog.com/nationalcourier2551
  30. SBOBET338 | Aug 27, 2018
    So luck to come across your excellent blog. Your blog brings me a great deal of fun.. Good luck with the site http://sbobet338.website/cake000SBOBET338www.tek789.comwww.sbobethk.com560betwww.cake000.comlink alternatif sbobetsbobet338.website
  31. prince U.S | Aug 27, 2018
    The information you have posted is very useful. The sites you have referred was good. Thanks for sharing.. every door direct mail canada
  32. deews | Aug 25, 2018

    Test Bank for Compensation  5th Canadian Edition by Milkovich

    <a href="https://testbanks.net/test-bank-for-compensation-5th-canadian-edition-by-milkovich.html">Test Bank for Compensation  5th Canadian Edition by Milkovich</a>

  33. asid yah | Aug 25, 2018
    Hi I found your site by mistake when i was searching yahoo for this acne issue, I must say your site is really helpful I also love the design, its amazing!. I don’t have the time at the moment to fully read your site but I have bookmarked it and also add your RSS feeds. I will be back in a day or two. thanks for a great site.  best weight loss diet
  34. asid yah | Aug 25, 2018
    If you follow previously mentioned tips on the daily basis, your smile will brighten in insufficient time at nearly. Really, you just need help make matters some lifestyle tips, and youre able to definitely dump yellow teeth and start smiling with at year round. Dallas Tattoo
  35. asid yah | Aug 25, 2018
    I was very pleased to find this site.I wanted to thank you for this great read!! I definitely enjoying every little bit of it and I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff you post. die Website
  36. everythingwin | Aug 24, 2018
    I've been searching for information on this theme for some time. I'm cheerful this one is so extraordinary. Keep up the fantastic work link sbobetlink alternatif sbobeteverythingwinwww.everythingwin.comicetunawww.maindulu.commaindulu.comeverythingwin.infohttp://everythingwin.info/
  37. Horoscope | Aug 23, 2018
    Know about your marriage prediction by date of birth? Give you free online horoscope prediction about boy and girl marriage life after checking their names, date of birth, time and place of birth. for more detail visit here https://www.futurepointindia.com/horoscope/horoscope-kundali-reports
  38. Horoscope | Aug 23, 2018
    Know about your marriage prediction by date of birth? Give you free online <a href="https://www.futurepointindia.com/horoscope/horoscope-kundali-reports">horoscope</a> prediction about boy and girl marriage life after checking their names, date of birth, time and place of birth.
  39. asid yah | Aug 21, 2018
    We do custom patches, embroidered patches, printed patches, custom Velcro patches, clothing labels, PVC patches, custom leather patches, custom keychains, and other promotional products. Following is an overview of our products.custom patch maker
  40. asid yah | Aug 21, 2018
    I think this is an okay article. You make this data intriguing and locks in. You give perusers a considerable measure to consider and I value that sort of composing.  choirs in London
  41. asid yah | Aug 21, 2018
    Thanks for the nice blog. It was very useful for me. I'm happy I found this blog. Thank you for sharing with us.I too always learn something new from your post classical piano lessons
  42. asid yah | Aug 21, 2018
    What a fantabulous post this has been. Never seen this kind of useful post. I am grateful to you and expect more number of posts like these. Thank you very much. Mundonoticias247.com
  43. http://www.poker18dewa.com | Aug 21, 2018
    It makes the Aliens soldiers in an Invasion Mission – the action is non-stop adrenaline flowing – Characters are believable and likable – It takes you for a non-stop ride from beginning to end. http://www.poker18dewa.com
  44. arpit narang | Aug 19, 2018
    https://recipie12.yolasite.com/https://recipie21.yolasite.com/https://recipie12.cabanova.com/https://recipie21.cabanova.com/http://recipie12.emyspot.com/http://recipie21.emyspot.com/http://recipie12.strikingly.com/http://recipie12.strikingly.com/blog/how-to-make-aanda-burjihttp://recipie21.strikingly.com/http://recipie21.strikingly.com/blog/egg-roast-biryani-recipehttp://feeds.feedburner.com/howtomakeomlette
  45. arpit narang | Aug 19, 2018
    recipiemaniarecipie maniaritik77ritik77 livejournalritik77 livejournalritik77 livejournalmasala omelet recipesmasala omelet recipesdoodlekitbanana hazelnut pain perdu duetbreakfast tacosmasala omelet recipesegg-kurma-recipieraksha-bandhan-quotes-and-whatsapp-statustortellini-and-hamstatus34status34technology778recipiemaniagoa-egg-curry-reciprecipieschoolNo-Hassle-Bread-MakingEasy-and-Heart-Healthy-Saladsomelettecurryrecipericky4you7engineeringjobmarketinaustraliastuffed-egg-recipesadwichrecipierecipieschool.yolasiterecipieschool.yolasiteritikchopr4fc1recipie12recipie21recipie12recipie21recipie12recipie21recipie12blog/how-to-make-aanda-burjirecipie21egg-roast-biryani-recipewill soon become 100masala omelet recipesextravagant coffee recipesaricky77tomato egg currybest inverter acrecipie maniagoa egg curry recipesimple way bengali reciperecipie schoolNo Hassle Bread MakingEasy and Heart Healthy Saladsbikestatusmake money from facebooktechnologyishereomelettecurryrecipericky4you7engineeringjobmarketinaustraliastuffed egg recipesadwichrecipierecipieschoolritikchopr4fc1omelet curryegg kurma recipiestuffed omelettebread omeletahmedabad street foodstatus34technologyishererecipiemaniarecipie maniaritik77ritik77 livejournalritik77 livejournalritik77 livejournalmasala omelet recipesmasala omelet recipesdoodlekitbanana hazelnut pain perdu duetbreakfast tacosmasala omelet recipesegg-kurma-recipieraksha-bandhan-quotes-and-whatsapp-statustortellini-and-hamstatus34status34technology778recipiemaniagoa-egg-curry-recipehttps://aajtaak5.wixsite.com/recipiemania/blog/how-to-make-dim-posto-in-simple-way-bengali-reciperecipieschoolNo-Hassle-Bread-MakingEasy-and-Heart-Healthy-Saladsomelettecurryrecipericky4you7engineeringjobmarketinaustraliastuffed-egg-recipesadwichrecipierecipieschool.yolasiterecipieschool.yolasiteritikchopr4fc1will soon become 100masala omelet recipesextravagant coffee recipesaricky77tomato egg currybest inverter acrecipie maniagoa egg curry recipesimple way bengali reciperecipie schoolNo Hassle Bread MakingEasy and Heart Healthy Saladsbikestatusmake money from facebooktechnologyishereomelettecurryrecipericky4you7engineeringjobmarketinaustraliastuffed egg recipesadwichrecipierecipieschoolritikchopr4fc1omelet curryegg kurma recipiestuffed omelettebread omeletahmedabad street foodstatus34technologyishererecipiemaniarecipie maniaritik77ritik77 livejournalritik77 livejournalritik77 livejournalmasala omelet recipesmasala omelet recipesdoodlekitbanana hazelnut pain perdu duetbreakfast tacosmasala omelet recipesegg-kurma-recipieraksha-bandhan-quotes-and-whatsapp-statustortellini-and-hamstatus34status34technology778recipiemaniagoa-egg-curry-recipehttps://aajtaak5.wixsite.com/recipiemania/blog/how-to-make-dim-posto-in-simple-way-bengali-reciperecipieschoolNo-Hassle-Bread-MakingEasy-and-Heart-Healthy-Saladsomelettecurryrecipericky4you7engineeringjobmarketinaustraliastuffed-egg-recipesadwichrecipierecipieschool.yolasiterecipieschool.yolasiteritikchopr4fc1ritik77ritikchopra518attitude-statussad-statuslove-statuschristmas-status-and-quotesbroken-heart-statusnew-year-statuswhats-app-statuswhats-app-statuswhats-app-statuswhats-app-statuswhats-app-statuswhats-app-statuswhats-app-statuswhats-app-statuswhats-app-statuswhats-app-statuswhats-app-status
  46. all status | Aug 19, 2018
  47. arpit narang | Aug 19, 2018
    http://www.23hq.com/allstatus00/a/abouthttps://addwish.com/2RfeT?newhttps://www.amazon.com/gp/profile/edit_public_activity_settingshttps://anotepad.com/notes/dbt6mphttps://app.box.com/account/profile79http://appearoo.com/_/system/waitConfirm.cfmhttp://www.apsense.com/account/contact?opt=saved\https://armorgames.com/community/thread/12601427/new-introduce-yourself-here?page=62#reply-12661254https://www.artwanted.com/cp/settings/contactinfo.cfmhttps://www.bloglovin.com/blogs/how-to-make-an-omlette-19559845?referer_context=blog_search_autocomplete_add_blog#https://asknature.org/members/all_status_quotes/#.W2lQXdIzbIUhttps://ask.fm/allstatus55https://www.askmehelpdesk.com/profile.php?do=editprofilehttp://www.articlesbd.com/myarticles.php?action=successhttp://my.blogtalkradio.com/tools#/https://www.bluemaumau.org/comment/reply/602http://blurpalicious.com/u/allstatus00/
  48. arpit narang | Aug 19, 2018
    https://www.reddit.com/user/Ritik77https://in.pinterest.com/ritikchopra518/https://in.pinterest.com/ritikchopra518/attitude-status/https://in.pinterest.com/ritikchopra518/sad-status/https://in.pinterest.com/ritikchopra518/love-status/https://in.pinterest.com/ritikchopra518/christmas-status-and-quotes/https://in.pinterest.com/ritikchopra518/broken-heart-status/https://in.pinterest.com/ritikchopra518/new-year-status/https://in.pinterest.com/ritikchopra518/whats-app-status/https://in.pinterest.com/ritikchopra518/hindi-status/https://www.diigo.com/user/allstatushttps://www.diigo.com/user/allstatus?page=2https://about.me/allstatushttps://www.codecademy.com/ritik78https://www.ulule.com/ritik/#/projectshttps://audioboom.com/users/5266825https://www.plurk.com/AllStatushttps://www.youtube.com/channel/UCntdDmlagSqk11zJlJYlrsAhttp://recipiemania.zohosites.com/http://recipie.zohosites.com/https://ritik77.livejournal.com/352.htmlhttps://ritik77.livejournal.com/707.htmlhttps://ritik77.livejournal.com/https://recipie1234.blogspot.com/https://recipie1234.blogspot.com/2018/08/masala-omelet-recipes.htmlhttp://recipie1234.blogspot.com/2018/08/masala-omelet-formulas.htmlhttp://ritikchopra.doodlekit.com/http://recipie1234.blogspot.com/2018/08/banana-hazelnut-pain-perdu-duet.htmlhttps://steemit.com/recipie/@ritik77/breakfast-tacoshttps://steemit.com/masala/@ritik77/masala-omelet-recipeshttps://steemit.com/omlette/@ritik77/egg-kurma-recipiehttps://steemit.com/raksha/@ritik77/raksha-bandhan-quotes-and-whatsapp-statushttps://steemit.com/recipie/@ritik77/tortellini-and-hamhttps://status34.blogspot.com/http://technologyishere.emyspot.com/https://issuu.com/technology778https://aajtaak5.wixsite.com/recipiemaniahttps://aajtaak5.wixsite.com/recipiemania/blog/goa-egg-curry-recipehttps://aajtaak5.wixsite.com/recipiemania/blog/how-to-make-dim-posto-in-simple-way-bengali-recipehttps://aajtaak5.wixsite.com/recipieschoolhttps://aajtaak5.wixsite.com/recipieschool/single-post/2016/08/28/No-Hassle-Bread-Makinghttps://aajtaak5.wixsite.com/recipieschool/single-post/2016/08/28/10-Easy-and-Heart-Healthy-Saladshttps://omelettecurryrecipe.cabanova.com/http://engineeringjobmarketinaustralia.strikingly.com/http://recipieschool.strikingly.com/blog/stuffed-egg-recipehttp://recipiemania.strikingly.com/blog/sadwichrecipiehttps://recipieschool.yolasite.com/https://recipieschool.yolasite.com/https://www.behance.net/ritikchopr4fc1https://howtomakeomlette.hatenablog.com/http://ritikchopra.doodlekit.com/https://howtomakeomlette.weebly.com/https://howtomakeomlette.weebly.com/blog/chicken-sausage-potato-hashhttps://www.diigo.com/user/allstatushttps://howtomakeanomlette.myfreesites.net/https://howtomakeanomlette.myfreesites.net/abouthttps://howtomakeanomlette.myfreesites.net/contacthttps://howtomakeanomlette.myfreesites.net/bloghttps://howtomakeanomlette.myfreesites.net/blog/italian-garden-frittatahttp://id.kaywa.com/ritik77https://www.prestashop.com/forums/profile/1511795-ritik/
  49. arpit narang | Aug 19, 2018
    http://bit.do/euGb2http://bit.do/euGbahttp://bit.do/euGb8http://bit.do/euGcjhttp://bit.do/euGce
  50. polarddesos90 | Aug 19, 2018
    One of the dilemmas of rookie bloggers is whether to register with a free blogging platform or to have a self-hosted blog. In this article, new bloggers will be able to understand that having a self-hosted blog is a must if they want their site to be taken seriously. Also, this article outlines the basic steps to create a website. Test Bank for Leadership and Nursing Care Management 6th Edition by Huber

    Leave a comment

    Drawings and charts for the movement of guns on British railways.


    British Pathe film, Giant Gun on the Railway 1914-1918.

    Admiralty

    Electrical Engineering Departments were first created by the Admiralty in 1903; Charles Henry Wordingham was made Superintending Electrical Engineer with two Assistants of whom William McClelland was one, the quotes are his. Electrical Engineers were appointed at each Dockyard. The war brought with it challenges for the fitting and maintenance of the fleet:

    “Early in the 1914-18 War, Admiral Sir Percy Scott, a well-known gunnery expert, walked into my room one morning, and, with his pencil drew on my blotting pad, an outline of a ship saying, “that’s the hull, that’s the tower; that’s the control room below; we want to control all turret guns from the top; if that is shot away, we then control from the room below; if that becomes flooded or damaged, we then control from a certain turret; any damaged parts must be capable of being isolated quickly with switch-over arrangements. Now McClelland, how long will it take to wire 30 first line ships at sea, the ships to remain at an hour’s notice for action?"

    McClelland's response was ignored, he was given 6 months and told to make arrangements to get the dockyard workmen to the Fleet. When the Fleet went to sea, the workmen often went with them; some were in action and were specially commended by the Commander in Chief.

    HMS Invincible, the fast Battle-Cruiser was urgently needed. She was under refit, her guns removed, and electrically she was nearly stripped. The extent of the electrical work involved was such that the Electrical Engineering Department could not complete the ship concurrently with other departments. Labour was not available in the dockyards. "The First Sea Lord said that, if it were a question of men, we should get them where we liked and how we liked, paying what was necessary, and if anyone say ‘nay’, that person should be referred to him, but without any doubt whatsoever, the ship must leave on the date given"He attached heavy penalties for any individual or Department failing to meet targets. Adverts were placed and over 200 men were found in a few days. Invincible left the dockyard on time; in the Falklands, she arrived just in time to catch and sink the German ships, the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. "Thus the Electrical Engineering Departments got through the 1914-1918 War, by sheer hard work and determination".

    New designs of ships, new construction and maintenance seemed unending; senior staff were engaged with all sorts of new electrical problems almost daily, they were much worried by the constant pressure and over-work. As an indication of the magnitude of the tasks, the number of electrical refits of ships was 48,630; the organisation for that one item, with its enormous supplies of materials, electrical machinery, and equipment from all over the country, had to be created without any previous experience of prolonged war in a comparatively new industry. The smooth and rapid expansion was made possible by the recruitment of suitable junior officers from the dockyards, who worked very efficiently.

    Sir Oswyn Murray Letter P1
    Letter to McClelland from Sir Oswyn Murray, Permanent Secretary of the Admiralty (the head of the Admiralty Civil Service in 1917) regarding his war work.


    Bridges

    Engineers played a vital role in moving troops, supplies and equipment. At the beginning of the War, the British Army did not have specialist material for building heavy bridges, nor the technical intelligence to be able to work out what might be required. The earliest forms of equipment bridging were based on pontoons which continued to be useful carrying guns and light equipment across rivers but the introduction of mechanical transport resulted in a large increase of axle load and the need to develop bridges to take heavier loads.

    The first need for heavy bridges was over the River Aisne on 13 September 1914, when the retreating German army destroyed the Pont Saint Waast leaving the allies unable to follow. The Royal Engineers built several pontoon bridges over the next few weeks followed by a heavy wooden girder bridge, the Pont des Anglais, at Sousson. The bridge was built under enemy fire and using any available materials including floorboards from local houses; it took too long to build resulting in a demand for steel spans to be sent.

      The first British equipment bridge was called the Inglis Portable Military Bridge (Light Type) invented by Sir Charles Inglis. Although the spans were invented in 1909 whilst Inglis was involved with the Cambridge University Officer Training Corps, they were first used as a self-contained portable bridge during WWI. Inglis was commissioned into the Royal Engineers in 1914; in1916 he was put in charge of bridge design and supply at the War Office. The first Inglis bridge consisted of pyramidal bays 8ft square created by 8ft long steel tubes connected by specially designed fittings, not unlike modern scaffolding.  It was designed to carry infantry in single file over a 120ft span and was easily transported  requiring little specialist training to construct.  At the first demonstration in France, a 108ft span was thrown across a canal in 13 minutes by an untrained party of Army Service Corps. On 28 September 1918 200 sappers from the Royal Engineers built a 108 ft span bridge over the Canal du Nord at Marquion in twelve and a half construction hours over several days whilst under fire.

      Although the Inglis Bridge was the best military bridge of the time, being fast to construct and carrying heavy loads, its tubular steel construction made it expensive and slow to manufacture. The Hopkins Bridge designed by Captain Hopkins, Royal Engineers, was a cheaper alternative. This bridge used conventional steel girders bolted together but the bolts meant construction was much slower than the Inglis. This meant that when speed was an issue, an Inglis bridge was often built which was then later replaced by a Hopkins bridge allowing the Inglis bridge to be re-used. The Hopkins bridge was designed to carry tanks. It consisted of steel Warren trusses and could be made in spans of multiples of 15ft. It was successful and a lorry bridge was designed, it was still at the experimental stage in 1918.

      The main disadvantage of girder bridges such as the Inglis and Hopkins was that they were not very adaptable; resulting in them often being stronger and heavier than required.  This problem led to the design of the Martel box girder bridge in 1925 which was used in the Second World War. These latter developments were as a direct result of engineers work from 1914 onwards.




      WWI Hopkins road bridge213
      Line drawing with technical details, Hopkins.


      Hopkins road bridge
      Hopkins road bridge being placed during the war.


      120ft Hopkins Bridge at Arques
      120ft Hopkins Bridge in use during the war at Arques.
      Credits/footnotes:

      ​'Giant Gun on Railway' film, British Pathe Archive.

      Images:

      Gun wagon charts/drawings, IMechE Archive.

      McClelland letter and portrait, IET Archive.

      Hopkins Bridge images, ICE Archive.